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Revista Cubana de Medicina

versión impresa ISSN 0034-7523versión On-line ISSN 1561-302X

Resumen

NASIFF-HADAD, Alfredo; GIRA, Phillipe  y  BRUCKERT, Erick. Efectos del alcohol sobre las lipoproteínas. Rev cubana med [online]. 1997, vol.36, n.1, pp.51-60. ISSN 0034-7523.

Alcohol consumption is a toxic habit. A greal deal of investigations have evidenced a relationship between alcohol consumption and serum lipoproteins. In its review, the current concepts about this matter are reported, and certain reflections are made taking into account that everything related to the metabolism of lipoproteins is of great significance due to the close relationship between lipoproteins and the development of the atherosclerosis and its different clinical manifestations. High density lipoprotein increased with a moderate alcohol intake at the expense of its two fractions, both being considerated inversely related to ischemic heart disease. The two mechanisms which have been accepted to explain this behaviuor are: 1) increased synthesis and secretion of apoproteins and 2) decreased activity of alcohol ester transporting protein. Low density lipoprotein are decreased in both chronic alcohol drinkers and in moderate alcohol drinkers due to an increase of hepatic receptors for LDL and to an increased clearance of it. Regarding this lipoprotein, the antioxidative beneficial effect attributable to wines, mainly the red wine, is pointed out. Very low density lipoproteins undergo qualitative modifications since a decrease of the cholesterol content of the lipoparticle has been found with no modification of the triglyceride or apoprotein content in chronic alcohol drinkers. The mechanism of this effect is not known at present. Intermediate density lipoprotein are modified like VLDL decreasing its hepatic synthesis through the rupture of disulfur bridges. It is pointed out that liver diseases frequently associated with alcohol abuse modify the behaviour of lipoprotein metabolism. Finally, emphasis is made on the fact that the frequency of alcohol consumption plays a very important role on the final effect over lipoprotein and that a moderate alcohol intake (25-30 g/day) is the amouth recomended, besides that the content of fitoesterols in beer and whisky, as well as the phenolic substances of wine are products which protect the cardiovascular system. It is concluded that alcohol may improve the lipidic profile reducing cardiovascular mortality rates.

Palabras clave : ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION; HDL-LIPOPROTEIN [metabolism]; LDL-LIPOPROTEIN [metabolism]; VLDL-LIPOPROTEIN [blood].

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