Revista Cubana de Medicina
versão On-line ISSN 1561-302X
The suitable surveillance and detection of adverse reactions to antiretrovirals are essential to prevent ominous consequences in the population affected by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The positive HIV cases from Bojanala that received attention at the AIDS Clinic in Rustenburg, from May 2004 to October 2005, were studied to know the behaviour of the adverse reactions to antiretrovirals, and to evaluate the pharmacovigilance strategies. Medical consultations were planned for the patients under antiretroviral treatment, and standardized complementary hematological investigations evaluated in practical training were made. Double daily control and register of adverse reactions on the basis of computerized data were applied. Attention was given to 4 043 patients, of whom 2 285 (56.5 %) received multiple antiretroviral treatment. Usually short term and transitory minor adverse effects were observed in 45 % of the cases (1 029 patients). Significant hematological and hepatic toxicity, potentially lethal, was present only in 11 and 15 cases, respectively, with satisfactory evolution after their attention. It was found that mild moderate neurotoxicity was frequent (159 cases - 7 %), and that 6 patients developed a severe reaction of hypersensitivity, 5 of whom had a satisfactory recovery and only one died. Other long-term complications, such as lipodystrophy and lactic acidosis appeared fortuitously. It was concluded that minor adverse reactions were common, with predominance of the neuropsychiatric and gastrointestinal complications. Severe lethal toxicity to antiretrovirals was low thanks to pharmacovigilance.
Palavras-chave : Pharmacovigilance; adverse reactions; antiretrovirals; AIDS.