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Revista Cubana de Pediatría

versión impresa ISSN 0034-7531versión On-line ISSN 1561-3119

Resumen

RIVERON CORTEGUERA, Raúl L.. Estrategias para reducir la mortalidad infantil, Cuba 1959-1999. Rev Cubana Pediatr [online]. 2000, vol.72, n.3, pp.147-164. ISSN 0034-7531.

The strategies used by the Ministry of Public Health at the various stages of the Maternal-Child Care Program to reduce infant mortality in Cuba from 1959 to 1999 were described in this paper. The period of time was divided into 4 decades so as to be understood. Reference was made to a number of measures taken, which include the creation of the National Health System, the formation of human resources, the development of medical education, the buildidng of medical schools, the post-graduate training, the increase of the number of hospitals and beds, the vaccination program, the programs for fighting gastroenteritis and reducing low birth weight, the rational use of antimicrobials, the presence of the bedside accompanying mother, the introduction of the use of oral rehydration salts to prevent and treat dehydration caused by diarrheal diseases, the development of Primary Health Care; the advanced technology programs for detecting birth defects, the promotion of exclusive breast feeding, the categorization of hospitals as "Friends of the Mother and Child? given by UNICEF; the carrrying out of research works serving as a basis for the Maternal-Child Care Program, the construction of hospsitals; the construction of intensive care units fitted with modern equipment both in pediatrics and neonatology; and many other measures put into practice during 40 years. All this made it possible that infant mortality, despite an increase by 25.5% in the first decade (1959-1969) began its sustained reduction by 50% in the second decade (1970-1979); 43.4% in the third decade (1980-1989) and 40.2% in the fourth decade (1990-1999). The paper concludes with the presentation of the main strategies that contribute to reducing infant mortality in the last years of this century.

Palabras clave : NATIONAL STRATEGIES; INFANT MORTALITY; PERINATAL MORTALITY; NATIONAL HEALTH PROGRAMS; PRENATAL CARE; CUBA.

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