Revista Cubana de Pediatría
versión ISSN 0034-7531
ALVAREZ LAM, Ileana et al. Clinicoepidemiological characterization of the acute otitis media in children. Rev Cubana Pediatr [online]. 2011, vol.83, n.3, pp. 271-279. ISSN 0034-7531.
Introduction: the acute otitis media is one of the infectious diseases more frequent in childhood and it is one of the more important causes of medical consultations and prescription of antibiotic agents in cases under five years old. Objective: to determine the clinical-epidemiological behavior of disease. Methods: a prospective, longitudinal and descriptive study was conducted in 60 patients aged between 1 month and 14 years diagnosed with purulent acute otitis media seen in the "William Soler" Teaching Children Hospital during one year. Clinical data were obtained by means of patient's family and tutor survey. All underwent tympanocentesis with culture and nasopharyngeal exudates. Strains isolated (S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae) were sent to Reference National Laboratory of the "Pedro Kourí" Tropical Medicine Institute to microbiological characterization and susceptibility antimicrobial assessment. Results: disease predominates in the group between 12 and 23 years months (55 %) with a great involvement in the male sex (52 %). Fever and local manifestations related to middle ear (irritability, otalgia, and night cry) were the more frequent clinical elements. The outside home care, the to tobacco smoke exposition and the early wean were the more frequent risk factors. S. pneumoniae, non-typing H. influenzae and S. epidermidis were the germs more isolated. The 25 % of strains of S. pneumoniae had an average resistance to penicillin but there was not report of resistance to third-generation cephalosporin. The 98,4 % of patients evolved satisfactorily. The disease complications were present in the 1,6 % of cases. Conclusions: the acute otitis media is frequent in children under 36 months of age and it is highly related to presence of determined socioeconomic, environmental and genetic factors that may to be present in children.
Palabras llave : acute otitis media; bacterial epidemiology; tympanocentesis; culture.