Revista Cubana de Obstetricia y Ginecología
version ISSN 0138-600X
VALDES RAMOS, Eduardo and BLANCO ROJAS, Isandra. Frequency and risk factors associated with appearance of gestational diabetes mellitus. Rev Cubana Obstet Ginecol [online]. 2011, vol.37, n.4, pp. 502-512. ISSN 0138-600X.
Introduction: The gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with a greater frequency of mother and perinatal complications. Objective: To determine the frequency and the risk factors associated with appearance of the GDM. Methods: A case-control, retrospective and analytical study was conducted in 639 pregnants admitted in the "Carlos Manuel de Céspedes" Hospital of Bayamo, Gramma province from January, 2009 to June, 2010. Sample was selected by the simple randomized method: 213 cases presenting with GDM (cases) and 426 without it (controls). From the medical records of each case selected authors collected data on the study sociodemographic and clinical variables. Results: The mean age at GDM diagnosis was of 22.29 weeks. GDM prevalence in study cases was of 3.27 %. The fasting glycemia ³ 4.4 m mol/l was detected in the 99.53 % of GDM patients (p = 0.0000) and the obesity in the 45.53 % (p = 0.1482). There was not significant association between the age ³ 30 years, the family history of first degree diabetes mellitus and the poly-hydramnios with de GDM development. The more prevalent unfavourable obstetric backgrounds were: perinatal mortality (3.28 %, p = 0.0132) followed by GDM (2.81 %, p = 0.0035) and the congenital malformations (2.34 %, p = 0.00090). Conclusions: The GDM is frequent in our environment and the more significant risk factors for its development were: fasting glycemia ³ 4.4 m mol/l, excess weight and obesity, as well as the unfavourable obstetric backgrounds.
Keywords : Gestational diabetes mellitus; obesity; risk factors.