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Revista Cubana de Hematología, Inmunología y Hemoterapia

versión impresa ISSN 0864-0289

Resumen

RIVERO-JIMENEZ, René A. A look to laboratory diagnosis of autoimmune diseases. Rev Cubana Hematol Inmunol Hemoter [online]. 2013, vol.29, n.2, pp.119-133. ISSN 0864-0289.

Autoimmune diseases (AD) are caused by an intrinsic damage of the immune system as a consequence of the loss of autotolerance, conditioning abnormal responses against proper structures giving a lasting in time tissue damage. Causes are multifactorial and the genetic predisposition is polygenic, provoking protein differences in immunological active cells or in organic cells. Although, there is a great diseases spectrum, they have been classified in systemic when antibodies attack antigens present in more than one organ or tissue; and organ-specific when the damage is involving a particular tissue. For a proper laboratory diagnosis of AD, identification of patient's symptoms is the starting point, as well as its association with each disease and the correspondence with autoantibody detection. It makes laboratory exams of great importance in the evaluation of patients, as they can be used to confirm the diagnosis, to estimate severity of the disease, and for the follow up of its evolution. Components of the laboratory study should include a complete hemogram with differential cellular count, a complete metabolic panel, inflammatory markers, the study of auto antibodies by several methods, as well as new Multiplex technologies and flow cytometry. In this look to the diagnosis, comments about some components and elements of judge about their clinical usefulness are pointed out.

Palabras clave : autoimmune diseases; diagnosis; laboratory; autoantibodies; immunofluorescence; immunoassays.

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