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Revista Cubana de Salud Pública

versión impresa ISSN 0864-3466versión On-line ISSN 1561-3127

Resumen

PITA RODRIGUEZ, Gisela et al. Ingesta de macronutrientes y vitaminas en embarazadas durante un año. Rev Cubana Salud Pública [online]. 2003, vol.29, n.3, pp.220-227. ISSN 0864-3466.

The nutrition of the pregnant woman is essential for the nutritional state of the newborn. The defficient amounts of macronutrients and vitamins may cause a birth weight deficit and an insufficient response to the oxidative stress that delivery and the child’s recovery represent. It is necessary to evaluate the food intake of the pregnant women 3 months before delivery, as well as the vitamin supplementation to estimate the nutritional situation and to know how it may influence weight gain and the nutritional status of the newborn. 156 pregnant women fron Havana City that were studied from 2000 to 2001 were surveyed to know the semiquantitative frequency of food intake during the 3 months before delivery. The values of weight and height at the beginning of pregnancy were collected to calculate the body mass index. The food intake was evaluated at the end of pregnancy in relation to the weight gain recommended at the beginning of pregnancy, the child’s birth weight and the biochemical evaluation of antioxidant vitamins E, C and A in the mother. The average intake of energy (2 243 kcal), carbohidrates (326.0 g), proteins (69.3 g) and lipids (70.9 g) were below the recommendations for pregnant women. Almost 50 % of them did not reach 90 % of the recommendations for this physiological state. Thiamine (84 %), pyridoxine (80.1 %), niacin (80.1 %) and folic acid (93 %) showed higher percentages of deficient intake. The adjustment of the energetic intake during pregnancy by calculating the body mass index at the beginning of pregnancy and the classification by the Cuban Standards proved that at the end of pregnancy, 68.7 % of them did not cover the recommended intake. No correlation was found between vitamins A and E of the diet and the vitamin E/polyunsaturated fatty acids relationship with the values of retinol aand and alpha-tocoferol in serum. It was only found correlation with vitamin C (r=0.182, p=0.024). No corelation was observed between the energetic ingestion in the diet and birth weight. 5.62 % had low birth weight (< 2 500 g). Only 44.9 % of the pregnant women were spplemented with multivitamins in addition to those indicated by the Maternal and Children Program (vitamin A, folic acid and vitamin C). The calculation of the contribution of Prenatal and Polivit to pregnant woman showed that with the supplementation it is possible to cover the recommendations of vitamins of the complex B, vitamin A and C, which are deficient in the diet, but the requirements of vitamin E, which is not in any of the available formulations, are not satisfied

Palabras clave : PREGNANCY; INFANT, LOW BIRTH WEIGHT; NUTRITIONAL STATUS; SUPLEMENTARY FEEDING; EATING; DIETARY VITAMINS [therapeutic].

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