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Biotecnología Aplicada

versión On-line ISSN 1027-2852

Resumen

INFANTE, Danay et al. Molecular identification of thirteen isolates of Trichoderma spp. and evaluation of their pathogenicity towards Rhizoctonia solani Kühn. Biotecnol Apl [online]. 2013, vol.30, n.1, pp.23-28. ISSN 1027-2852.

Disease caused by Rhizoctonia solani Kühn infestations has become a growing problem for commercially important crops. Although this fungus is usually controlled through the application of chemicals, the heavy ecological and financial toll of the latter has prompted for research on biopesticides as a viable alternative. Trichoderma spp. is a well-known fungus often used for the biological control of crop pests, whose anti-fungal mechanisms include competition for the substrate, antibiosis and/or mycoparasitism. In the present work, we have used molecular techniques (sequencing of amplicons from the internal transcribed spacer of ribosomal DNA and the EF1A translation elongation factor) for the taxonomic identification of 13 Trichoderma spp. isolates in our collection, also evaluating their antibiotic effect on strains from three anastomosis groups of R. solani (AG-2.1, AG-5, AG-8) by the cellophane method. The sequences obtained from all isolates exhibited 100 % identity with deposited T. asperellum Samuels sequences in TrichoBLAST/GenBank, enabling their taxonomic assignment to this species. When analyzed by in vitro tests, over 70 % of the isolates exhibited a fungistatic effect towards R. solani, with the remaining strains exhibiting fungicidal activity; these results were later corroborated by technical efficacy tests under field conditions. Isolates 3, 13, 17, 75, 78, 85 and 90 were selected as potential biocontrol agents due to their high antibiotic activity and technical efficacy under field conditions.

Palabras clave : Trichoderma asperellum; Rhizoctonia solani; internal transcribed spacer; transcriptional elongation factors; fungicide effect; fungistatic effect.

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