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Revista Cubana de Endocrinología

versión On-line ISSN 1561-2953


LICEA PUIG, Manuel Emiliano; BUSTAMANTE TEIJIDO, Mirelkis  y  LEMANE PEREZ, Maritza. Type 2 diabetes mellitus in children and adolescents: clinicoepidemiological, pathogenic and therapeutic aspects. Rev Cubana Endocrinol [online]. 2008, vol.19, n.1. ISSN 1561-2953.

OBJECTIVE: due to the sustained increase in the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in persons under 20, the clinicoepidemiological, pathogenic and therapeutic aspects of type 2 diabetes mellitus in children and adolescents were reviewed. DEVELOPMENT: in children, it is estimated that type 2 diabetes mellitus accounts for 2-3 % of all cases. However, in the last years, there has been a ten-fold increase. Its prevalence is higher among Afro-Americans, Hispanics and native Americans, in puberty and in those with history of type 2 maternal diabetes mellitus. Type 2 diabetes mellitus is the result of the interaction of genetic and environmental factors (obesity, physical inactivity, poor nutritional habits, among others). There is a wide range of clinical manifestations: severe hyperglycaemia with ketonuria and ketosis to a mild hyperglycaemia. 50 % may be asymptomatic. Obesity, Acantosis nigricans, family history of type 2 diabetes mellitus, puberty, and type 2 maternal diabetes mellitus are risk factors. It prevails in females, autoimmunity is rare and the dependence on insulin may be episodic. Those with the highest hyperglycaemia have lower levels of insulinemia and peptide C. When hyperglycaemia is mild, diet, physical exercise and, in some cases, the administration of oral drugs, such as metformin, may be useful. CONCLUSIONS: type 2 diabetes mellitus in children and adolescents is a reality. Evolutively, most of them do not need insulin therapy. They may have retinopathy, microalbuminuria, dyslipidemia and arterial hypertension on diagnosis. Risk populations should be actively screened.

Palabras clave : Type 2 diabetes mellitus in children; type 2 diabetes mellitus in adolescents; insulin resistance; obesity; pathogeny of type 2 diabetes; risk factors.

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