Revista Cubana de Endocrinología
On-line version ISSN 1561-2953
CABRERA RODE, Eduardo and LICEA PUIG, Manuel E. A new definition, prevalence, characterization, and treatment of the latent autoimmune diabetes of adult. Rev Cubana Endocrinol [online]. 2008, vol.19, n.3, pp. 0-0. ISSN 1561-2953.
Latent autoimmune diabetes of adult is a way of autoimmune diabetes present in some subjects erroneously classified as Type 2 diabetics. Progression of autoimmune damage of ß cells in this entity is slower than in children presenting with Type 1 diabetes. At diagnosis, persons affected by this condition, have a greater preservation of ß cells function than those presenting with the classic Type 1 diabetes. Their present diagnosis is based on 3 features: age similar o greater than 30 years (however, it may be present in subjects in ages lower than 30 years); presence of at least 1 of the 5 antibodies to pancreatic antigens of islet-cells (anti-islet [AI] auto-antibodies, anti-descarboxylase of glutamic acid [AGAD], antibodies to phosphatase tyrosine [AIA2], and to zinc-cation transporter within ß islet-cells [AZnT8]), and the need of insulin requirements, at least 6 months after diagnosis. It is present in 10 % of subjects presenting with Type 2 diabetes in ³35 years, and in 25 % of those younger than 35 years. Some genes of susceptibility for it are described, including genes HLA DR3/DR4 and DQB1*0201/DQB1*0302, DQB1*0602, Class I MHC related to A chain (MICA), as well as class I VNTR allele, among others, those similar o different of the classic Type 1 diabetes or the Type 2. Prospective studies on function of ß cells show that subject carriers of it with multiple auto-antibodies associated to Type 1 diabetes develops a failure of function above mentioned within the first 5 years of duration of diabetes, while the most of those with on AGAD or ICA develop a failure in this function after 5 years. In these persons may to occur a failure in function of ß cells up to 12 years after diagnosis of disease, although deterioration of ß cells response to i.v. glucose or glucagon, may be detected in some subjects at diagnosis of diabetes. Thus, we aren't in presence of a latent disease. There are studies suggesting that insulin-treatment is the more appropriate at diagnosis of disease to counteract function damage of ß cells. In this paper, we reviewed all that related to its definition, genetics, presence of anti-islet auto-antibodies and its pathogeny, as well as experiences with this function, and treatment in discussion. Also, as the autoimmune diabetes may be found not only in adults but in children and adolescents, as well as in young adults, we suggested the eponymus of autoimmune diabetes of slow progression like the more suitable.
Keywords : Latent autoimmune diabetes of adult (LADA); autoimmune diabetes of slow progression (DAPL); Type 2 diabetes; Type 1 diabetes; ICA, anti-GAD65 antibodies; autoinmmunity, genetics.