Revista Cubana de Endocrinología
versión On-line ISSN 1561-2953
ALVAREZ ALVAREZ, Aimée M.; GONZALEZ SUAREZ, Roberto M. y MARRERO FALCON, Miguel A.. Role of testosterone and cortisol in metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Rev Cubana Endocrinol [online]. 2010, vol.21, n.1, pp. 80-90. ISSN 1561-2953.
INTRODUCTION: metabolic syndrome and the type 2 diabetes mellitus are metabolic disorders fully approached in scientific literature due to its high incidence, as well as its association with a high morbidity and mortality. In past years new elements of potential impact in its physiopathology have been reviewed including the sexual steroids and the glucocorticoids. In present paper were reviewed and discussed the more current knowledges on the testosterone and cortisol role in the physiopathology of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus in men. DEVELOPMENT: testosterone plays a significant role in modulation of sensitivity to insulin and in glucose homeostasis because of in men the low levels of testosterone are a predictor element of type 2 diabetes mellitus and of the metabolic syndrome. A bidirectional and reversible relation between androgen deficiency and the adiposity, as well as between the androgen deficiency and insulin resistance have been established. Authors suggest that low levels of testosterone could predispose to abdominal obesity provoking an alteration of fat acid metabolism, which at the same time will promote the insulin resistance. Cortisol and testosterone secretion are interrelated and have inverse effects on insulin resistance. In abdominal obesity the adrenal-hypophyseal-hypotalamic axis is hypersensitive leading to a frequent increase of cortisol secretion and a decrease of sexual steroids secretion. Besides, a disproportionate increase of stress-physiologic response induces a cortisol secretion increase which could at the same time, to provoke the insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome. One of the pathogenic mechanisms of insulin resistance is the increased flow of fat acids arriving to liver from the visceral fat metabolism. The cortisol/testosterone relation modulates among other hormones the visceral fat accumulation has been associated in men, with mortality and with the incidence of ischemic cardiovascular diseases through an alteration of the metabolic syndrome components. This fact could be an early indicator of insulin resistance and of metabolic syndrome. This element introduces a new dimension within the metabolic syndrome physiopathology deserving be studied to increase the diagnostic and therapeutical potentials in this field.
Palabras llave : testosterone; cortisol; metabolic syndrome; type 2 diabetes mellitus; insulin resistance.