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Revista de Ciencias Médicas de Pinar del Río

versión On-line ISSN 1561-3194


SARMIENTO PORTAL, Yanett et al. Clinical and epidemiological characterization of congenital heart diseases. Rev Ciencias Médicas [online]. 2013, vol.17, n.2, pp.46-57. ISSN 1561-3194.

Introduction: congenital heart diseases constitute a heterogeneous group of heart morpho-functional and blood vessels defects. Objective: to characterize clinical and epidemiological factors associated with congenital heart diseases. Material and method: an observational, analytical, case-control type study was carried out in neonatology service at "Abel Santamaria Cuadrado" University Hospital during 2010-2011. The target group was comprised of 11 138 newborn infants in such period. The sample was divided into: Study Group (70 newborn infants) having the diagnosis of congenital heart disease in the neonatal period and a Control Group: 140 at term newborn infants, born consecutively of those included into the Study Group, taking two controls per each case. Chi-square test with a level of significance p<0.05 and the odd ratio were used to determine the strength of association among the variables. Results: the incidence of heart diseases during the period was 6,3 per 1000 alive newborn infants. Maternal ages between 20 and 34 years old prevailed, where anaemia was the most prevailing disease found in the study group (17,1%), which was a risk factor. Toxic habits were present in 58,6% of mothers included in the study group. Male sex prevailed (54,3%) and isolated interventricular communication (45,7%). Heart disease (21,4%) appeared in association with other malformations, where trisomy-21 was the most frequent. The survival rate was 92.9%. Conclusions: clinical and epidemiological factors associated with congenital heart diseases were maternal age (20 to 34 years old), anemia, toxic habits and male sex.

Palabras clave : Congenital heart defects; Risk factors; Ventricular heart septal defects.

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