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versión On-line ISSN 1729-8091

EduSol vol.22 no.78 Guantánamo ene.-mar. 2022  Epub 11-Ene-2022



Didactic to proceed for the evaluation of the professional skills

0000-0003-4453-0524Yaquelin Lazo Gómez1  *  , 0000-0001-9551-0465Miriam Gainza Gainza1 

1Escuela Pedagógica José Marcelino Maceo Grajales. Guantánamo. Cuba


The evaluation of the professional abilities in the Pedagogic School's students is a subject matter insufficiently investigated as of the present moment. Constitute a need for the quality of the Primary Education in Cuba. The utilization of didactic procedures in mail with the graduate profile that these abilities from the curriculum evaluate efficiently is important in his formation. Didactic procedures are intended to their evaluation, based in the authors' practical experience. They utilized fact-finding methods like the documentary analysis, the observation, interviews and you try pedagogic. As from his application bigger sign quality of the graduate.

Key words: Professional abilities; Evaluation; Didactic procedures; Quality of education


Education is a social phenomenon whose influences have the commitment to implement changes to comply with the integral formation of the new generations, sustained in solid scientific knowledge of the current world that prepares them for life. To respond to these demands, the Ministry of Education (2017), is responsible for training teachers with quality that will implement the necessary changes in their context of action once they graduate.

This aspiration together with the options of continuity of studies for 9th grade graduates and guaranteeing teacher coverage in each territory of the country, constitute reasons that support the reopening of the Pedagogical Schools, with a new approach from the implementation of the third educational improvement, where the efficient evaluation of professional skills is essential to explain and put into practice the knowledge acquired in the training process.

Multiple researchers have addressed this issue in the initial training of the education professional such as: Addine Fernández (2007), Ferrer Madrazo (2002); among others who propose actions for the development of professional skills, specify some invariants, their integrating character in the development of the curriculum. They make assessments that implicitly carry the need to develop and evaluate them from each discipline.

The aforementioned contributions constitute the support for the work in the Pedagogical School; they determine aspects to be taken into account when conceiving the evaluation of professional skills, where insufficiencies are appreciated to address this aspect in a systemic way from the methodological work according to the current demands that guarantee the fulfillment of the professional's profile.

The purpose of this article is the proposal of didactic procedures in correspondence with the graduate's profile that efficiently evaluate professional skills, based on the authors' experience as well as on the bibliographic systematization carried out.


The training of primary teachers in Cuba after the triumph of the Revolution, has its genesis from 1961 with the achievement of literacy of all the people. After this experience and the conditions created for the successful development of education in our country, teacher training schools were created in 1969. The Revista Educación (1974, p.5), refers within one of its objectives to train teachers... "efficient and revolutionary, capable of instructing and educating our people in the principles of the new society".

Special attention was given to the development of professional interests and love for the profession. Its aspiration was to form a revolutionary teacher, unconditional and with a broad knowledge of the main subjects; the evaluation of professional skills was not conceived. In the 1990s, these centers were closed and other variants were applied for teacher training in Cuba.

With the scientific and technical progress of society, the need to raise the quality of learning and ensure teacher coverage in all territories of the country, the Pedagogical Schools were reopened in the course 2010-2011 with a varied curriculum where the subjects focused on the mastery of content, which among its objectives was to prepare students for the entrance tests to the higher level, giving priority to the cognitive with insufficiencies in the practical didactic, which limited the evaluation of professional skills.

In order to achieve quality in the training of primary teachers and incorporate the changes derived from the third improvement in the educational sector by implementing in 2015 a new curricular conception based on the Regulations and methodological and organizational indications for the development of work in the Pedagogical Schools, some advances in the evaluation system of the subjects can be seen in its explanation, the Practical Teaching System is determined as the backbone in this training, with guidelines for its development, lacking precisions on how to evaluate professional skills.

That is why the evaluation of professional skills in pedagogical schools should be flexible, comprehensive, educational, creative, and diagnostic, with a projective character towards higher levels with the use of reflective methods and procedures. According to (Castro Pimienta, 1999) defines it as ... "an essential component of the teaching-learning process, it allows the control and evaluation of knowledge, skills, habits and ways of acting in students". In dialectic unity with these are the didactic procedures that must constitute a system, in correspondence with the proposed objectives.

The use of methods accompanied by reflective and productive procedures is fundamental for the achievement of quality in learning. According to (Silvestre and Zilberstein, 2002), "they constitute "tools" that allow the teacher to guide and direct the student's activity as a group, in such a way that the influence of "others" favors individual development, stimulating logical thinking, theoretical thinking and cognitive independence, motivating the student to "think" in a "favorable learning climate".

The contextualized interactive method is the effective interaction of the subjects in the educational teaching process in a participatory, reciprocal and interactive manner and its contextualization based on current demands. It promotes procedures aimed at the efficient evaluation of professional skills.

The didactic procedure Reciprocal updating is the mutual updating from the updating of the diagnosis in the domain of professional skills, in addition to the study and effective implementation of the normative documents that govern the work in the Pedagogical Schools.

Actions to be carried out.

  • Study of the professional's profile, program of subjects and updating of the changes proposed for improvement in primary education.

  • Determination of their treatment from the subjects.

  • Presentation of the learning outcomes and verification of the mastery of skills by subject.

  • Determination of professional skills to be evaluated at the end of each unit, taking into account the potentialities offered by the content.

  • Proposal of different forms of evaluation, taking into account the potential and needs of the students.

  • Design of evaluation instruments based on the objectives.

  • Proposals of parameters for the evaluation of skills.

  • Selection of bibliographies and materials from the digital world that enhance the fulfillment of the proposed objectives.

  • Determination of the relationship of the content and objectives of the unit with the teaching level for which the students are trained.

  • Activities for the practical teaching system and demonstration of how to evaluate professional skills.

The brainstorming technique is proposed for its implementation.

Objective: To guarantee the efficient study and implementation of the normative documents that govern the work in the Pedagogical Schools.


  • Selection of the subject previously (evaluation of professional skills).

  • Criteria and practical activities from the subjects will be presented.

  • All the ideas and practical activities are written down on a blackboard.

  • They are grouped and classified looking for points of contact taking into account the specificities of each subject.

  • Consensus is reached as to which one or ones will be the most affordable for their application, taking into account the objectives of each academic year.

This moment will be characterized by:

  • Listening, valuing, respecting and appreciating all ideas and interventions.

  • The rejection of all criticism without logical basis, during the process of promoting ideas.

  • Demonstration through the use of all printed and technological bibliographic resources.

Creative Reflection Process

It is related to the issuance of judgments, assessments, explanations, demonstrations, reflections that lead to the design of learning strategies. The following actions are performed:

  • Reflect on the characteristics of the students' developmental moment and the learning strategies they prefer.

  • Analyze the deficiencies, the causes and the approach of solution strategies for the evaluation of professional skills during the training process.

  • Plan, execute, monitor and evaluate strategies at each organizational level.

  • Reflect on the efficient evaluation of professional skills based on demonstrations from the curriculum subjects.

  • To reflect on the potentialities of the practical teaching system in the Pedagogical Schools for the evaluation of professional skills.

  • Incorporation to research. Evaluation of its results.

In the preparation of the subject, the self-preparation of the teachers is fundamental for the efficient management of the educational teaching process, it is an indispensable antecedent and requirement in the preparation of the classes. Before the missions are given to each member of the group.

Basic operations.

Conversation, explanation, orientation, observation, oral presentation, demonstration, use of bibliographies related to the topic, analysis, synthesis.

Mission 1

  • Orientation and discussion of the contents of the subject and its methodological treatment, in which the professional pedagogical approach is accurately reflected for its contribution to the Profile of the Graduate.

  • Determination of the basic elements of the content of each subject to be exercised with the use of the textbook, bibliography, films or educational software.

Activities for the teacher.

Make a study of the unit # and expose its methodological treatment.

  1. Propose activities where you demonstrate the professional pedagogical approach.

  2. Determine which are the professional skills you propose to develop and expose it through a practical activity.

  3. Exemplify how to efficiently use the textbook and other bibliographies, propose an activity where you develop this skill in your students.

  4. Propose activities for the evaluation of professional skills.

Mision 2

  • Discussion of the classes to be prepared and prepared. Orientations for self-preparation.

  • Analysis of the application of the Master Program of the Mother Tongue and its methodological indications, mastery of the macro communicative skills by the teachers.

  • Planning, orientation, control and evaluation of the independent study.

  • Parameterization scanning and control.

It is the socialization of the proposed parameters for the evaluation of professional skills.

Actions to be developed.

  • Determine the parameters for the evaluation of skills.

  • Planning the stages in which each activity will be evaluated.

  • Guarantee all the assurances for the success of the evaluation.

Fundamental operations to be fulfilled.

Conversation, explanation, orientation, observation, oral presentation, demonstration, use of bibliographies related to the topic, analysis, synthesis.

  1. Interest shown in the realization of the oriented activities.

  • Correct copy of the activity to be developed.

  • Raising of doubts for its realization.

  • Organization and distribution of activities among team members.

  • Search of alternatives for the solution of situations that may arise during the development.

  • Correct use of team work techniques.

  1. Discipline and responsibility.

  • Completion of the activity within the established time.

  • Quality compliance by each team member with the assigned task.

  • Attendance at team meetings to review the assigned tasks.

  • Actions presented in the team for the preparation of the exhibition.

  1. Mastery and utilization of the documents you need for your preparation as a future education professional.

  • Quality preparation of content cards, diagrams, murals, concept maps, electronic presentations or other technological means for their exposition.

  • Efficient use of the textbook and others, including technological ones.

  1. Level of cognitive independence in the exposition of the activities.

  • Independence and creativity achieved in the presentation of the activity.

  • Shows skills for summarizing and exposing the essential idea.

  • Responds with arguments to the questions asked about the exposed topics.

  • Proposes other affordable solutions to the activity.

  • Suggests actions to improve the quality of learning in the group.

  • Mastery of the basic nuclei of knowledge for the development of the activity.

  • Uses schemes, summaries, and concept maps for the demonstration of the content.

  1. Proficiency in the professional macro skills of the Mother Tongue.

  • Ability (Reading) Reads fluently, with intonation and expressiveness. His tone of voice is moderate and appropriate to the activity. Pronounces words correctly without omissions or additions.

  • Ability (speaking) expresses him/herself with good diction, without omissions or additions. Speaks fluently, understandably, and with cadence. His/her tone of voice is appropriate and moderate.

  • Ability (listening) listens attentively to the criteria addressed on the subject. Does not interrupt the explanation of others. After listening to the presentation with discipline and respect, he/she expresses his/her opinion.

  • Ability (writing) writes with clear and legible letters. In his strokes he shows correct uniformity and inclination. Divides words correctly at the end of the line. His spelling is accurate.

  1. Mastery of the content and correct use of teaching aids.

  • Shows mastery of content and cognitive skills in the activity.

  • Seeks other successful solutions for its realization.

  • Makes a content error but rectifies it and if not, the team members in the presentation correct the error.

  • Makes several content errors that demonstrate inadequacies and little mastery of the content.

  • Uses quality teaching aids for the presentation of the activity.

  • Correct use of the blackboard to show the content.

  1. 7. Relationship that establishes the content with the educational level for which it is formed.

  • Relationship that establishes the content with the primary level.

  • Determination of problemical issues related to primary education.

  • Demonstrates the use of documents specific to the primary level.

  • Demonstrates the applicability of what has been learned to the level for which he/she is trained.

  • Activities proposed for the contribution to the pedagogical professional reaffirmation.

  • Shows knowledge of the main changes proposed at the educational level for which they are trained, derived from the improvement of the education system.

  1. 8. Actions that you propose to incorporate to the project of the group of students where you are inserted in the practice.

  • Recognition of the positive, negative and interesting aspects of the activity.

  • Actions proposed to the educational project of the group.

  • Willingness to participate in scientific societies, events of monitors and other activities of professional reaffirmation related to Mathematics.

  • Actions proposed to be carried out in the group where he/she is inserted in the practice.

  1. 9. Political readiness showing for the professional output of the content.

  • Demonstrates applicability of the content to the surrounding environment.

  • The data used show contextualization and veracity.

  • Expresses the importance of the teaching profession in current times.

  1. 10. Participation in activities for professional reaffirmation.

  • Active participation as subject monitors.

  • Concerns about their quality in the preparation for the teaching of classes.

  • Development of all the activities of the pre-professional practice guide with quality.

  • Exposes with quality his experiences, proposes solutions as a future professional.

  • Participates in scientific societies and other research activities on pedagogical topics that guarantee their future professional performance.

Each of these indicators will be evaluated on a quantitative scale from 5 to 1.

  • 5- Highly achieved: maximum level of achievement or development reached in the mastery of the fundamental operations of the professional skills.

  • - 4- Fairly achieved: high level of development in the mastery of fundamental operations; some operations may not be fully achieved, but they do not affect the development of professional skills as a whole.

  • 3- Achieved: the minimum level that can be accepted in the fulfillment of the actions described in the indicator.

  • 2- Poorly achieved: insufficiencies in any of the indicators, which determine a low level of compliance or development of operations in the action described.

  • 1- Not achieved: significant deficiencies that cause non-compliance or a very low level of development, affecting the quality of the action described in the indicator.

The implementation of the didactic procedures from the technical management bodies in the Pedagogical School, guarantees the integral formation of the education professionals who will put into practice the changes emanating from the third educational improvement, distinguishing the preparation of the subject as a fundamental scenario in the preparation of teachers to evaluate professional skills.


From the implementation of the didactic procedures, teachers showed an adequate mastery for the evaluation of professional skills in the Pedagogical School. Adequate quality in learning and modes of action during the development of the teaching practice. Appropriate treatment from the content to the pedagogical professional output, which allowed the preparation of programs for the teaching of professional workshops according to the characteristics of the territory. Successful mastery of the graduate's profile and professional skills. Effectiveness in the process of validation of study plans and programs, issuing well-founded criteria and solution proposals from the preparation of the subject to update them according to current demands. Better results in efficiency indicators.

Referencias bibliográficas

Addine Fernández, F.; Recarey Fernández, S.; Fuxá Lavastida, M.; & Fernández González, S. (2007). Didáctica: teoría y práctica. Pueblo y Educación. [ Links ]

Castro Pimienta, O. (1999). La evaluación Integral del paradigma a la práctica. Pueblo y Educación. [ Links ]

Ferrer Madrazo, M. T. (2002). Modelo para la evaluación de las habilidades pedagógicas profesionales del maestro primario. Tesis de Doctorado. Instituto Superior Pedagógico "Enrique José Varona", La Habana. [ Links ]

Ministerio de Educación. (1974). La formación de maestros primarios en Cuba. Revista Educación, No 13, 5-14. [ Links ]

Ministerio de Educación. (2017). Normativas e indicaciones metodológicas y de organización para el desarrollo del trabajo en las Escuelas Pedagógicas. La Habana. [ Links ]

Silvestre Oramas, M. & Zilberstein Toruncha, J. (2002). Hacia una Didáctica Desarrolladora. Pueblo y Educación. [ Links ]

Received: April 10, 2021; Accepted: October 22, 2021

*Autor para la correspondencia:

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