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versión On-line ISSN 1729-8091

EduSol vol.22 no.78 Guantánamo ene.-mar. 2022  Epub 11-Ene-2022



Radio locution and its effect on oral expression in primary school students

0000-0002-8723-5587José Antonio Quintana Huaccho1  *  , 0000-0001-9483-8100Amelia Torres Zambrano1  , 0000-0002-3865-1365Mónica Yon Delgado1 

1Universidad Cesar Vallejo, Perú.


The purpose of the study was to know the effect of radio locution on oral expression in fourth grade students of the Educational Institution No. 64999 of Yarinacocha-Pucallpa-2021. An applicative study was carried out, with a pre-experimental design and the observation technique and the checklist as instruments were used to demonstrate the effect of the radio speech workshop on oral expression. The results show that the radio speaking workshop produces significant effects on oral expression in fourth grade students of the Educational Institution No. 64999 of Yarinacocha.

Key words: Speech; Expression; Diction; Fluency; Rhythm; Clarity and consistency


Worldwide, human beings use a type of language as a means of oral expression, which serves to communicate and thus express their various needs, oral expression is developed progressively from the first years of life, but in many cases there are difficulties of verbal or oral expression. The national curriculum includes communicative competencies, so these difficulties do not stem from this point, but rather from the pedagogical models that teachers use in the educational process. The process of orality is linked to understanding and this is developed in parallel, orality is closely supported by the grammatical ability giving the possibility to express or communicate from their perspective diverse opinions, to work the skill of verbal expression is taken into consideration 2 categories: the first is oral production; related to the productivity of texts directed to a sector of audience and the second category is oral interaction; here the speaker addresses one or more people.

It is determined that a person presents difficulty in oral expression when he was subjected to a diagnostic evaluation, where it is evident that his language rhythm is slow and the tonality is very low, he also presents difficulty in expressing words or sentences due to the lack of an appropriate vocabulary, he slightly stutters and does not motivate a constant dialogue (Vila, 2018), we know that the communicative process is vital for life human being, this for being part within society and therefore need to express themselves with their peers, it is so that oral expression becomes the vital competence within the communicative skills that every human being must have and be developed from early childhood (Ascurra, 2021).

That is why oral expression should be assumed with great responsibility in its teaching from early childhood education, where infants can learn to express themselves, emphasizing proper pronunciation of words, as well as increasing their vocabulary with new terms, among other aspects, to achieve the above and to achieve linguistic growth the infant must learn to speak and listen, For a better oral expression one must know how to control the voice in order not to damage the acoustic quality of the words he pronounces, the voice is linked to the volume, nuances, tone and inflections, while non-verbal communication is related to the dynamic action of the sender and receiver within the space.

Then we can affirm that the oral expression comes to do the linguistic skill that the issuer uses in front of the dialogues poured, it is also mentioned that it is the communicative capacity which is wide because it encompasses the communicative domains such as: pronunciation, lexicon and grammar, to all this also adheres sociocultural and pragmatic knowledge (Níkleva & López, 2019), all human beings use oral expression supported by the sounds and articulations that we emit, through the functioning of the organs of phonetic articulation, which constitute as the fundamental tool that is used to emit variety of words, for a good development of oral expression the human being takes into consideration the basic elements of grammar such as: phonetics, semantics and syntax, by considering these aspects it is considered that oral expression is well defined (Rios & Rojas, 2018).

With regard to radio broadcasting, we can state that people who work in radio stations demonstrate a high degree of knowledge about how to speak or address an audience, because they fully manage oral expression.

One of the best qualities in radio broadcasting is the voice, since it becomes the fundamental means by which the message is transmitted, the degree of mastery that the speaker presents will be the positive cause that the speech is captured by the listeners in a clear way (Rodero, 2001), the radio announcers work their voice under a strict training, giving the possibility of acquiring mastery of a larger set of registers, which can be of animals or imitating voices of children or adults, the imitation of animal sounds can be the meowing or barking, all this is learned through repetition.

Radio broadcasting can also be transferred to the educational field as a strategy, specifically in the area of communication, giving the possibility of involving the student to become a good broadcaster, but providing purely academic knowledge and thus achieve significant learning.

Within the educational institutions, teachers with the support of the directors should develop a set of programs and scripts of radio or television character in order to promote local and national identity giving prominence to students, we know that the radio is the effective tool as a communicative medium, which is of taste and satisfaction of the listeners, because it transmits information immediately, not only to urban areas, but also to the most remote areas of a country, the radio considered as the effective transport of information, that is why the quality of voice of the announcer is fundamental, because it creates an intimacy with the listener and also this will determine the popularity of the program, since the interviews or debates will have an impact on the listeners, that is why the aspect of orality must be worked, we can state that the radio is of great utility to a more, if it is considered as a didactic tool with the purpose of improving the process of oral expression of students, with the radio it can be evidenced that the voice is the protagonist of the information accompanied by other elements such as music and sound (Vila, 2018).


The radio broadcasting

Gómez (1992) defines radio speech as the way of speaking professionally, making use of the radio medium and consists of the application of several elements such as: articulation, diction, fluency, intonation, tone, timbre, vocalization, voice projection, pauses and dissertation.

  • -Articulation: considered as the way to clearly evoke the words, for this it is important to make the gestulation of the words for a good understanding.

  • Diction: it is the correct evocation of the emission of words.

  • Fluency: it is the constant way of evoking the words, which we dominate by their constant use.

  • Intonation: represents the degree of strength of the voice emitted by the speaker over the words.

  • Tone - modulation: pitch of the sound

  • Timbre: allows us to identify the difference between people's voices.

  • Vocalization: correct way of emitting each of the letters that make up a word.

  • Voice projection: the sound wave that travels through the air.

  • Pauses: it is the space that allows to propel air in order to continue and fulfill each of the elements.

  • Dissertation: it is linked to the content of the subject to be discussed.

The same author proposes the following classification of broadcasters who perform their journalism activities through radio broadcasting, as detailed below:

  1. Booth announcer. This is the action carried out by the trained person who performs such action by audiovisual means, where the professional performs the function of transferring basic and elementary information of daily events, conducting interviews, interacting with the public through telephone calls, transmitting music, among other activities.

  2. Commercial or advertising speaker. It is the professional who performs commercial advertising actions seeking that the listener achieves to abstract the credibility of the products through persuasion, for this it is important that the speaker enunciates the benefits that benefit the consumer with respect to the product.

  3. Announcer announcer of music. The exclusivity of this professional is latent in all radio stations; he/she is in charge of informing listeners about the latest musical productions, where the announcer informs about the details of the recording process of the musical theme. It is very important that he/she has ample knowledge of the trajectory of the musicians and characters of the national and international show business (Gómez, 1992).

  4. Master of Ceremony Announcer. This is the person who conducts the process of a ceremony or protocol act, showing a high degree of respect to the listeners within the space or auditorium, this professional has the ability to perform before the public present, improvisations or gestures of bad sense are prohibited, to fulfill the activity the announcer must express a high degree of knowledge of the activity and organize it properly measuring the time for each action to be performed.

  5. Announcer-moderator. In this case it must be a professional speaker who must present studies in social communication media and thus fully conduct opinion programs and journalistic interpretation. He/she must have the ability and knowledge of the topics when conducting interviews, participation as moderator in debates, round table discussions, forums, etc. This professional is not only in charge of his/her function as communicator, but also has a lot of technical knowledge of the equipment used to transmit on the radio.

Espinal (1990), states that radio is the medium that best reaches listeners, due to its preference and variety, this medium is broadcast to all social strata, that is, it reaches easily and without discriminatory acts to the whole nation, the radio announcer addresses daily to a not so educated audience, this medium is globalizing and tends to reach a greater number of listeners, in addition it requires a low investment unlike television media.

Escalante and Prieto (2008), mention that the intentionality of the radio is consistent with the nature of the purpose for which it was created, assumes its importance by the constant interrelation of person to person, since it is closer and gives great opportunity to the listening public, also the investment is low cost unlike other open signal media. The specific characteristics of radio broadcasting, which are detailed below, are vital for the broadcaster:

  1. Breathing: The human being possesses a complex apparatus, a "human emitter", basically constituted by the lungs, the glottis, the oral cavity and the nostrils as resonators-amplifiers. The rib cage, a cavity formed by the vertebrae, the ribs and the sternum, limited at the bottom by the diaphragm, contains the heart and the lungs. The muscles cause the ribs to rise and widen when we breathe in; when we breathe out, the ribs descend and contract, the diaphragm rises and the air escapes. This is how only during exhalation the sound is emitted, which after a phonatory process is transformed into the word.

  2. The articulation: to carry out the process of pronunciation of the words it is necessary to use the vocal cords, since these do not act voluntarily, for the faithful fulfillment of this action it is necessary the resonance cavities that will help in the amplification of the sounds making it melodious or shrill.

Oral expression

Walter (2010), defines oral expression as the set of techniques that determine the general guidelines that must be followed to communicate orally effectively, that is, it is the way to express without barriers what one thinks, of course, without exceeding or harming third parties. Knowing how to express oneself orally has been since ancient times one of the central activities of life in society. In democratic regimes, above all, speaking in public is essential to make our ideas and opinions known. A large part of the effectiveness of democracy lies in the fact that large masses of the population have the necessary skills to communicate. Therefore, we must learn how to express ourselves properly in public. Oral expression serves as an instrument for communicating about processes or objects external to oneself. It should be taken into account that oral expression in certain circumstances is broader than speech, since it requires paralinguistic elements to complete its final meaning. Therefore, it not only implies an adequate knowledge of the language, but also encompasses several non-verbal elements. The importance of the latter is crucial.

  • The author also points out the types of orality which are:

  • Primary orality: as the way of communicating of cultures "which know neither writing nor printing".

Oral cultures (called primitive cultures, without history, by classical anthropology, with terms already in disuse) have a set of knowledge, habits, traditions, representations, symbolisms and meanings that allow us to discover them. (Walter, 2010).

  • Secondary orality: it is the one handled by advanced cultures that possess writing (complex societies or civilizations, with historiography). In these cultures it is writing that has become the support of memory. It is the form of communication of those who know writing, printing and other new ways such as telephone, television, radio or more currently hypertext, and who depend on writing for their functioning and existence.

Pineda and Lemus (2004), state that oral expression can be spontaneous, but also the product of rigorous preparation. Both forms of expression should be promoted at school, according to the grade in which the students are placed. In the early grades, it is suggested to give preference to spontaneous expression in order to "break the ice" and accustom students' participation. On the other hand, in the later grades it will be preferable to give priority to prepared exposition, especially on academic subjects.

Gónzalez, Jornet and Bakieva (2013), mention that methodological considerations it is of vital importance to keep in mind that oral expression is a tool that should be used daily, with special emphasis on each teacher dedicating time to the development of this skill. The teacher should stimulate the students, motivate them and create in them the need to express themselves spontaneously from their own intimacy and in a safe environment, rather than teaching them to express themselves. Do not forget that the child in expressing himself shows his interiority to which everyone owes the greatest respect. A controlling, examining and critical attitude would result in the pupil withdrawing into himself and then silence, or anodyne, impersonal dialogues, with which the pupil will try to cover the file.

As a great defender of orality, he maintains that speech is the root of writing, since he does not conceive the existence of writing without its predecessor, orality. It is a communicative form that ranges from the cry of a newborn baby to the dialogue generated between friends. It is a symbolic system of expression, that is, an act of meaning directed from one human being to another or others, and is perhaps the most significant characteristic of the species. (Walter, 2010).


The research design used was pre-experimental. It is generally used in situations in which rigorous experimental control is difficult.

The scheme is as follows:

G. Ex ________ 01_______ X ______ 02

Where: G.EX. = Experimental Group - Is the sample.

01 = Input observation to the dependent variable.

X = Application of the workshop as an educational medium.

02 = Output observation to the dependent variable.

In the case of the research, the population consisted of 164 students of the Educational Institution N° 64999, Yarinacocha-Pucallpa-2021. The sample consisted of 38 students in the fourth grade. The type of sampling used was random probability sampling.

Regarding the data collection technique, observation was used with its corresponding instrument, the Checklist, which was applied to the study variable. Reliability was assessed through Cronbach's alpha by means of a pilot test and validity by expert judgment.


The radio announcing workshop produces significant effects in the oral expression of the fourth grade students of the Educational Institution N° 64999 of Yarinacocha, because, in the data obtained in the post-test, it can be observed that most of the students were in the good level, with a percentage of 52.38%, while in the pre-test most of the students were in a very low level with 76.19%. Therefore, it is observed that the students improved significantly in their oral expression.

Referencias bibliográficas

Ascurra Medina, C. R. (2021). Planificación de una unidad de aprendizaje empleando estrategias didácticas para desarrollar la expresión oral en los niños de tres años a través de la plataforma Zoom. ]

Espinal, N. (1990). La producción radiofónica en los programas informativos. Técnicas, hábitos y cualidades de la Producción Informativa”. En: Martínez-Costa, J. (Coord.), Información Radiofónica (163-193). Barcelona: Ariel. [ Links ]

Escalante, H. y Prieto, I. (2008). Locución Profesional. Universidad del Zulia. [ Links ]

Gómez, L. (1992). Valores gramaticales de "se", 1r a Ed. Madrid: Arco/Libros. [ Links ]

Gónzalez, J., Jornet, J. M. y Bakieva, M. (2013). Consideraciones metodológicas sobre la evaluación de la competencia oral en L2. Revista Electrónica de Investigación Educativa, 15(3), 1-20. ]

Níkleva, D., & López, M. P. (2019). El reto de la expresión oral en Educación Primaria: características, dificultades y vías de mejora. Educatio Siglo XXI, 37(3), 9-32. ]

Pineda, M, y Lemus, F. (2004), Lenguaje y Expresión. , 1ª Ed., publicado por Pearson Educación S. A. [ Links ]

Rios Pinto, I.A.; & Rojas Cama, J. J. (2018). La canción como estrategia didáctica para el logro del desarrollo de la expresión oral en los estudiantes del segundo grado de primaria de la Institución Educativa Mi Pequeño Genio de Vitarte-2017 , UGEL 06. ]

Rodero, E. (2001). Los principales errores que debe evitar todo locutor de informativos radiofónicos: un estudio práctico. ]

Vila Rodríguez, M. (2018). La radio como herramienta para mejorar la expresión oral del alumnado en la enseñanza secundaria. Revista de Educación de La Universidad de Granada, 25, 149. ]

Walter, O. (2010). Las formas de expresión verbal. Edic. 1ra. Buenos Aires. [ Links ]

Received: April 15, 2021; Accepted: September 05, 2021

*Autor para la correspondencia:

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