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versión On-line ISSN 1729-8091

EduSol vol.22 no.78 Guantánamo ene.-mar. 2022  Epub 11-Ene-2022



The curricular strategy of environmental education from the philosophy class

0000-0003-2530-1558María Magdalena Hernández Morales1  *  , 0000-0003-2350-1850Hildiana Sánchez Elías1 

1Universidad de Ciego de Ávila, “Máximo Gómez Báez”, Cuba


In the educational practice, the strategy of environmental education is introduced in the disciplines and subjects of the formative curriculum, with an approach to the exercise of the profession, in order to achieve a conscious attitude in the interactive process man-nature. It offers reflections on the importance of the knowledge of Fidel Castro Ruz's thought in the environmental culture of the new generations. To propose as a way directed to the formation of professionals with an environmentalist conscience the Philosophy class, in the Bachelor's Degree in Law, taking into account the teaching experience. The document analysis method is used.

Key words: Environmental education; Curricular strategy; Environmental awareness; Philosophy


When addressing curricular strategies and their influence on the integral formation of students, it is necessary to resort to aspects that are attractive to students from the perspective of the content of the subject they receive, which is why the thought of Fidel Castro is chosen as a novel component to develop an educational work aimed at raising awareness about the need for environmental protection and how the exercise of the profession is aimed at achieving the same.

The literature consulted on the formative foundation of the strategies takes as a basis the reflections made by several authors, among which are: Horruitiner, (2010), Velázquez & Gamboa, (2016), Moré (2016).

As well as, the writings and speeches of the historical leader of the revolution, Castro (2005), the methodological indications approved by the VRD of the University of Ciego de Avila (UNICA), of the Ministry of Higher Education and the CITMA on the Life Task, in which through content analysis the fundamental ideas exposed are extracted to establish reflective discussions in the meaningful learning of the student. The objective is to propose the philosophy class as a way for the environmental education of students, based on the experience obtained in the application of the environmental curricular strategy developed at the University of Ciego de Avila (UNICA), in the Bachelor's Degree in Law, where professionals are trained with an environmental conscience to face the problems from the profile of the career. It is exemplified in the type of seminar class.


One of the activities that in the methodological order should be kept in mind by the teacher to make his educational work more effective, is to use the document that regulates the Methodological Indications VRD, Course 2018/19, it is pointed out: Methodological line of work "The improvement of the educational and political-ideological work developed with the students of UNICA. Education through instruction". An analysis is made of the deficiencies and achievements reached during the work stage. Among the deficiencies, it is highlighted the limited control in the application of the strategies, in the preparation of the programs of the subjects it is not always sufficiently precise how to apply the curricular strategies.

In the aforementioned document, it is indicated to guarantee a better link between the departments responsible for the strategies, with the faculties and careers; to hold workshops with teachers to leave ways of action on how the strategies are applied in the classes; to establish the practice of requesting advice from the center level pointers; to make the teachers of the subjects that directly contribute to the curricular strategies responsible for the preparation of the students for the presentation of works in different events, contests and forums.

The declaration in the methodological orientations of the subject programs and in the document of organization of contents (P1), the contribution that will be made in a precise manner to a certain curricular strategy to be developed. In this regard, it is important to specify the concept of Curricular Strategy, in order to specify its value in the training of the professional.

Several authors have written on this subject, and have stated that curricular strategies include:

Those general aspects of each profession that cannot be formed from a particular discipline, requiring the assistance of the remaining ones, so that they are coherently integrated into the curriculum of each career, as part of its design and with a real balance of the whole and each of its parts". (Cruz, 2012, p.12)

This criterion is shared, although the disciplines and subjects of the formative curriculum constitute a dialectically structured system, where each one contributes instructive and educational elements.

For his part, Horruitiner (2010) maintains that the most common strategies for the educational work of students are: Informatization strategy, related to the use of computers and information and communication technologies; strategy for communication in a foreign language, mainly English language; strategy for the proper management of scientific and technical information; strategy for mastering modern management approaches; strategy for economic training.

All of them are embodied in the indications to be followed by teachers in their educational activity in the university institution.

Thus, in the Regulations of Teaching and Methodological Work of Higher Education R/No.2/2018, art.86 curricular strategies, it is noted that the strategies, ensure the achievement of attributes present in the general objectives of the career that, due to their scope, exceed the possibilities of their fulfillment of a discipline and therefore must be assumed by all or by a group of these during the career. Common strategies at present are:

  • Information and communication technologies

  • Use of mother tongue

  • Communication in English

  • Humanistic training

  • Economic training

  • Civic - patriotic

  • History of Cuba

  • Environment

Each one of them allows students to form an integral culture based on the contents of the subjects and disciplines of the curriculum. In the different types of classes, spaces must be provided to address aspects related to one of them in correspondence with the objectives proposed in the program. Likewise, this should be indicated in the organizational document of teaching planning. In this sense, it is necessary to ask how the classes of the subject Philosophy and Society in the specialty of Law allow working on the curricular strategies.

It is necessary to reflect on the importance of the class and how, through it, it is possible to develop actions to form a general culture, which complement the different curricular strategies in the students, from the perspective of the contents of the subjects. The criterion of Velázquez and Gamboa is taken as a basis, in which he points out that:

The classroom, due to its organized and systematic character, is the ideal way to work on Curricular Strategies, which does not mean that in other contexts they are not used. The teacher must be the one who forms in future education professionals not only the desire to know and study, but also the values, habits and skills required by the current times. (2016, p.10)

Thus, developing curricular strategies, in a planned manner, is adequate for the achievement of the educational objectives proposed in the academic year.

According to, Moré (2016), the curricular strategy of environmental education for sustainable development and university extension, an adequate linkage of contents to subjects and disciplines is required. Plan and develop activities within the framework of the strategy: talks, video projections, results of surveys on the environmental strategy, student newsletters, photographic contests, works in Student Science Day, community projects, ecological approaches to laboratory and field practices, WEB pages and other initiatives.

This criterion is shared, given the experience achieved in its development during previous academic years in the application of the environmental curricular strategy, although it is proposed in the study plan to give it an exit from the career through the subject of Environmental Law and Law 81. In Plan D it is taught in the 4th year and in Plan E in the 1st year, second semester.

The agreement established by the Ministry of Higher Education (MES) and the Ministry of Science and Technology (CITMA) is taken into account, in this particular document: National Environmental Strategy 2016 / 2020, which specifies the educational nature of environmental work, the management of science, technology and innovation for the solution of environmental problems, accompanied by educational and communicative processes that enhance the development of an environmental culture in professionals and students of Higher Education, so that it is reflected in their professional and civic performance. Likewise, it is necessary to design and execute course and diploma works with a multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary approach, in which real or modeled problems are solved with an adequate environmental approach. Economic and social guidelines must be taken into account. PCC Congress. No. 229 Energy Policy, No. 234 Educational System and the Media, No.282 to foster an environmental culture.

The objectives of the Vida Task are specified, which contemplates five strategic actions and eleven tasks aimed at counteracting the affectations in vulnerable areas, the same were approved on April 25, 2017 by the Council of Ministers and constitute a priority for the country's environmental policy. The Ministry of Science Technology and Environment is in charge of implementing and controlling the tasks of the State Plan.

All these assessments serve as a basis for the methodological work in the teaching departments, where the actions to be developed in the curricular and extracurricular aspects are established. An example of how the environmental education curricular strategy can be developed through the seminar class is presented.

The seminar type class is chosen because it allows the deepening of the contents of the subject, reflection, evaluation and debate among the participants.

Exemplification in a class type.

Department of Marxism-Leninism and History. Degree: Law, Program Plan E, 72 hours, Subject: Philosophy and Society, Topic IV: C 4 hours, S 6 hours.

Subject IV: The materialist conception of history as a methodological theoretical foundation of the new materialism.

Teaching activity: Seminar No.1 2h class

Title: The Materiality of Society.


  • The population and the geographical environment as the material premise of society.

  • Material production as the basis of the system of historically determined social relations.

Initial issues of the class (roll call, organization, etc.). Historical date, national and international events related to population and geographic environment as current global problems.

Objective: To discuss the general philosophical foundations of the specific character of society as a material phenomenon, through the study of classic and updated literature for the understanding of global problems affecting social development.

Curricular strategies to be developed:

  • Entorno: actitud ambiental vinculada al perfil del profesional.

  • Español o lengua materna: Resolución 01/2009, expresión oral y escrita.

  • Político-ideológico: comprensión de los problemas globales actuales y de la política del Partido y del Estado.

Values to be developed: responsibility, humanism, ecological culture, etc.

Teaching method: Active, problemical (heuristic conversation).

Teaching media: Blackboard, document review, video, images of the future. Cuban Institute of Art and Cinematographic Industry and Video Culture. Director Santiago Álvarez, collaborator Roberto Chile et. al. Group Yoruba, songs by Lázaro Ross. Time 07:49 min. Speech by Fidel Castro. UN 20_documentary Fidel's speech.mpg

To express the importance of the subject to understand and assume a conscious attitude of the global problems that affect the world today: Ecological problems, generated by the imbalance in the performance of natural and social laws in the interaction man-nature and its implication in social development, as well as, the role played by human capital in the current context.

Previously the student will pick up the seminar guide and the bibliography deposited in the educational manager, through which he/she will be able to interact.

The point to be debated is presented, taking into account that the philosophical interpretation of the material unity of the world has been approached from the solution to the Fundamental Problem of Philosophy (FPP), in fact only with the appearance of Marxism did it make possible the just understanding of this problem. Questions to solve: What were the fundamental defects of pre-Marxist thought in the treatment of nature and society? What is work?

Labor is above all the process that takes place between man and nature. Engels' work The role of labor in the transformation of the monkey into man. Labor-Language-Life in Collectivity. Man through labor creates his second nature.

What are the conditions for social development?

  • Existence of men as material carriers

  • Existence of a geographic environment to interact and obtain the goods needed for life

  • Production of material goods as the basis for social development.

Once these aspects have been explained, we will move on to the development of the following aspects.

Aspect referred to the population, which is developed by the students previously selected, will be considered: The concept of population. Its role in the existence and development of society. Criticism to the Malthusian and neo-Malthusian conceptions that distort the role of population in social development. Work of the party and Cuban society in the preservation and development of the population in the construction of our social model.

The aspect referred to the geographical environment will be approached by the selected students; it should be taken into account: The concept of geographical environment and its importance for the existence of social development. The social and natural laws. Its objective character, unity and differences. The following maxim will be analyzed: "The social development of a specific society depends on the conditions of the geographical environment, whether it is rich or poor in its resources".

An aspect to be addressed that contributes to the political and ideological formation will be what is contained in the guiding documents on the work of the party and Cuban society in the preservation of the geographical environment in the construction of the Socialist social model.

The debate is established on the basis of the following polemics:

  • Concept of population (world, country, rural, active)

  • Active population, number of inhabitants of a country, of people who are incorporated into the labor market, who are employed or seeking employment.

  • What is the core of the population? The WORKFORCE

  • Why is population aging a challenge for Cuba?

Overall number of residents between 15-59 years of age (7,203,371 persons of both sexes). Surpassed the century (three thousand eight hundred and sixty-five long-lived 3,865). Total inhabitants 11 167 325, in Cuba (Census 2012).

Degree of aging in Cuba is 18.3% (+60 years, two million 41 thousand 392 citizens).

  • Cuba works diverse strategies for its demographic complexities.

  • Economic and Social Guidelines VI Party Congress No.155

  • Need to look for alternatives to a reality that has no backward movement: life expectancy. The State includes (budget) to support measures aimed at protecting the elderly and stimulating the birth rate.

Importance of the population and the geographical environment for social development, Castro (2005, pp. 35-39), taken as the basis for his analysis:

"(...) you have participated in a dialogue; I do not know whether to say between civilizations or a dialogue for civilizations".

"(...) I believe that there are still many people to civilize in this world. I think, for example, that those who bomb cities terrorize millions of men, women, and children and then say that there were civilian casualties, need to be civilized."

"To think you have to exist, to dialogue you have to survive and to survive you have to fight."

"Conscience is the weapon with which humanity can be saved."

Why is Fidel constantly warning of the danger that threatens man and humanity?

Could you refer to the content and validity of Fidel's reflections in these speeches delivered in 1992 and 2005?

Why can we consider social materiality, on the one hand as a reflection of social conflicts, and on the other hand as the result of the productive forces and the new means of production?

"(...) after each of these victories, nature takes its revenge". Exemplify.

What are the actions taken by Cuba to combat climate change?

Economic and Social Guidelines No 229. Energy Policy. Use of renewable energy sources (...) No.234 Projecting the educational system in the mass media and the school (...), No.282 Promoting a culture for the rational use of water, etc.

How can you, from the perspective of the future professional, contribute to the formation of an ecological culture?

The conclusions of the seminar are developed on the basis of the:

  • Methodological character of the Materialist conception of History.

  • Material production is the foundation of social development; the prevailing regime plays a role in the preservation of material and human resources in the interactive process Man-Nature, production of goods and services.

  • The economic and social guidelines as a means for the improvement of the socialist mode of production in Cuba.

  • Song by the duo Buena Fe, "La zanja".mp3. Dedicated to the Environment


The research carried out showed how the class serves as a way to motivate students in the study of environmental issues, from the perspective of their professional training, and that the study of Fidel's thought serves as a guide to understand the urgency of saving humanity. The experience developed in previous courses in the subject Philosophy and Society (Plan D), where students presented works in the History Base Event, at the Faculty and University level, among other events, such as:

IV Workshop of the National Liberation Project II Eastern Front, 9 Dec. 2017. Fidel's legacy to face climate change and the disappearance of the human species. Laidel Castillo Reyes Awarded Relevant.

The Historical Allegation History Will Absolve Me. Ailén de la Caridad Madrigal Enrique

Provincial preparatory meeting for the xi national meeting of international law. From the Association of Jurists on May 10, 2018. Cuba-United States relations in the framework of the reestablishment of relations. Lorenzo Palmero Martín

XXV Scientific Workshop of Patriotic Military and Internationalist Education with the Higher Education Institutions of the Central Region. Dedicated to Commander in Chief Fidel Castro Ruz. At the UCLV "Marta Abreu", April 13, 2018. Reflections Fidel Castro on current global problemicals. Environment. Laidel Castillo Reyes

In the Final Workshop of the subject Philosophy and Society II, Plan E courses 2018/19 and 2019/20 of the Law Degree, Fidel Castro's thought related to various topics that express his vision of the contemporary world was reflected upon, promoting the linking of the academic and the investigative in the formative strategy.

The elaboration of an Institutional Research Project, entitled: Fidel Castro's thought in the university context of Avila. Its development favored the incorporation of professors and students to the research activity and the introduction of its results to the educational and political-ideological teaching work. The First Colloquium dedicated to the Commander has already taken place with the active participation of students of various specialties.


The curricular strategies constitute instruments for the meaningful learning of the students and the development of the educational work. In particular, the environmental curricular strategy allows the formation of an environmental conscience in students from the profile of the specialty.

The analyses carried out based on the documents that regulate the need for environmental education constitute a methodological tool to be developed in the different teaching and extra-teaching activities.

The reflections made based on Fidel's thought, serve as a theoretical basis and practical instrument for the formation of the environmental conscience of teachers and students, manifested in the results achieved in academic activities.

The results achieved with the participation in the philosophy classes and the different student scientific events, prove the motivation shown by the students for the deepening in the study of Fidel Castro's thought related to environmental issues. The group and individual interviews conducted with the students highlight the level of satisfaction.

Referencias bibliográficas

Castro, F. (2005). “Diálogo de Civilizaciones”, Comparecencia en la Conferencia Mundial de civilizaciones. Siglo XXI: Universalidad y Originalidad. La Habana 2005. Pág. 35- 39. [ Links ]

Cruz, D. et al. (2012). Las Estrategias Curriculares. Instrumentación. UCP “Pepito Tey”. Material docente. Las Tunas. [ Links ]

Horruitiner, P. (2010). La universidad cubana: modelo de formación. La Habana: Pueblo y Educación. [ Links ]

Moré, M. (2016). La estrategia curricular de educación ambiental para el desarrollo sostenible y la extensión universitaria. Universidad de Villa Clara. ]

Velázquez, R.Y. y Gamboa, M.E. (2016). ¿Cómo trabajar las estrategias curriculares en las clases de Matemática? En Rivas, A. Perfeccionamiento de la educación, trabajo político ideológico, formación de valores e historia local. [ Links ]

Received: February 12, 2021; Accepted: July 18, 2021

*Autor para la correspondencia:

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