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EduSol

versión On-line ISSN 1729-8091

EduSol vol.22 no.80 Guantánamo jul.-set. 2022  Epub 20-Jul-2022

 

Original article

The educational work of relevant figures of the Cuban 20th century: methodology for its historical-pedagogical study.

Osmar Oliva Crespo1  * 
http://orcid.org/0000-0001-9206-3233

Idalberto Senú González1 
http://orcid.org/0000-0003-2950-7369

María Margarita Santiesteban Labañino1 
http://orcid.org/0000-0003-1930-7726

1Universidad de Oriente. Cuba.

ABSTRACT

The systematization of the legacy of the Cuban education heroes, has allowed revealing the conformation of the educational thought, and the content of the pedagogical tradition in the Educational Sciences. The continuity of the same, on the basis of the study of the educational work of the outstanding teachers of the 20th century, is revealing the rooting, continuity and development of pedagogical ideas. The objective of this article is to design a methodology for the study of the historical-pedagogical process of educator Francisco Ibarra Martínez and his contributions to the teaching of Cuban History 1905-1977, based on a pedagogical model.

Keywords: Relevant figure; Educational work; Methodology; Systematization; Historical-pedagogical process

Introduction

In the face of the vertiginous development of the so-called information and knowledge society, of the crisis of the humanist paradigms that have sustained our civilization until today, man as a social subject has the urgent need to know who he is, where he comes from and where he is going. A developing society demands the presence of historical memory, the consistent study of the men and women who shaped the identity of the nation in their time, who proclaimed to the rest of the world that there was originality and authenticity in their work; without them, it is difficult to establish the dialectical relationship between continuity and rupture as social processes of construction and transformation.

In view of the specificity of the general development of scientific knowledge, an essential place is occupied by the Educational Sciences and in this context the continuous training of the professional is essential. Cuban universities, due to their complex mission, must promote the intervention in the world of a creative, transforming man, capable of solving problems, a subject who accepts the challenges of modern society; who, in turn, with his abilities, capacities, skills and knowledge, makes use of this development propitiating new goals that lead to strengthen the humanistic character of education in its evolution.

Therefore, it is assumed the criterion that: "The study of the History of Education and culture in Latin America reveals the existence of a considerable number of educators, who generated an educational and pedagogical thought, which have marked genuine changes in the educational processes of the region, and mark peculiar milestones in the current XXI century" (Buenavilla, 2002, p. 1).

The analysis, interpretation and evaluation of the past can contribute to reveal the historical lines and continuity and the trends of social development. As stated by Senú, Naranjo, Torres and Oliva: "Professionals must know the educational traditions and assume the experiences of positive values in order to improve their educational work. They must recognize the roots that support and inspire the Cuban educational project, and evidence the continuity of pedagogical thought" (Senú, Naranjo, Torres and Oliva, 2021, p. 3).

From the above analysis, it can be inferred that a cardinal place in the training of professionals is achieved by reinforcing national and local cultural identity through historical memory. From the perspective of this article, it offers an important reference to explain some contemporary educational phenomena and to continue consolidating a culture based on the diversity of our roots, full of experiences and ethical foundations. In this regard, the scientific contributions made by stand out: Senú (2016); Senú, Turner and Cubela (2017); Oliva, Senú and Santisteban (2019); Oliva, Senú and Girón (2020); Oliva, (2021); Zaldívar, Fuente and García (2020); among others, who approached different educational phenomena from the historical point of view and have contributed significant steps for the construction, at the time, of the historical research methodology.

These scientific researches and their contributions allow finding the roots that dignify the authenticity and identity of the Cuban teaching profession, based on general relations, namely, past-present-future of the teacher's praxis and formative practice and the identification of their contributions in the link between individual practical action and generalized educational praxis, which identify local, regional and national contributions. However, many of the scholars of this subject in the field of History of Education, warn and agree that there are inconsistencies in the argumentation for the study of the life histories of representative personalities of Education and Pedagogy developed in different historical contexts.

In this regard, Senú (2016), emphasizes: "Educational researches of historical-pedagogical nature carried out in Cuba are still scarce. The necessary and sufficient systematization of the pedagogical work of outstanding Cuban educators has not been achieved, as recognition of the rich pedagogical tradition existing in the territories and their contribution to the study of the history of education in the country" (Senú, 2016, p.2).

Similarly for Oliva, "Insufficient theoretical-praxiological constructions that allow achieving, from the Educational Sciences, the revelation of the study of the educational work of outstanding educators of the twentieth century. Scarce theoretical-practical arguments for the systematization of the educational work of outstanding educators of the Cuban teaching profession" (Oliva, 2021, p.29).

All this justifies the insufficiencies in the study of outstanding Cuban educators of the 20th century, in relation to the recognition of the content of their educational work, which limits the revelation of their contributions to the Cuban pedagogical theory. Therefore, the objective is to design a methodology for the systematization of the educational work of Francisco Ibarra Martínez and his contribution to the teaching of Cuban History (1905-1977), based on a pedagogical model of the same nature.

Development

This article is consistent with the definition of methodology as a scientific result. De Armas, Lorences and Perdomo (2003), define it as:

Set of methods, procedures, techniques, which regulated by certain requirements allow us to better organize our thinking and mode of action to obtain, discover, new knowledge in the study of theoretical problems or in the solution of practical problems (De Armas et al, 2003, p. 14).

As can be inferred from this theoretical construction, this researcher refers to the distinctive features that characterize a methodology as a scientific result in the educational sphere: It is a relatively stable result obtained in a scientific research process. It responds to an objective of educational theory and/or practice.

Therefore, the recognition and dignification of the roots of Cuban education and Pedagogy constitute the foundation of the so-called Cuban Educational Theory, it corresponds to the history of education the study of the educational past and therefore to the thinking of those who with their work are part of the educational legacy, those who with their daily actions contributed to the achievement of the results that Cuba boasts today.

According to Ramos (2019), who considers the different stages through which the historical-pedagogical process passes and the objective laws of social nature that characterize it. When studying said process as an object of the History of Pedagogy, concepts appear that reach the condition of categories, since they reflect the most general and essential properties, facets and relations of the same, such as educational system, school institution and pedagogical conception; which, in their interrelation, give coherence and a vision of integrality to the process.

The nature of the historical-pedagogical process is given in the historical, social and class character of education, which is manifested in all categories, since this process has accompanied man through all ages, demonstrating the close link between the history of education and the history of social development. The study of the life and educational work of representative figures of Cuban pedagogy today is urgent, and it can be verified by studying the Constitution of the Republic in Title III, article 32, paragraphs a), c) and j).

This methodology enriches, contextualizes and makes more flexible the already existing methodologies for the study of outstanding educators. The general objective of the methodology is to contribute to the recognition of the best pedagogical traditions, based on procedures of systematization of the educational work of Francisco Ibarra Martinez, assuming as atheoretical support the model of the study of the work of outstanding educators of the Cuban 20th century. It is addressed to: University professors and students, researchers and all those interested in delving into the roots of Cuban Pedagogy and its most representative teachers.

Beginnings one holds in: According to refer Branches ( 2019 ), the study of the historic pedagogic process must depart of the knowledge of the beginnings that they govern his evolution and than consider him ruling ideas or postulates that a theoretic generalization in the interpretation of this object, these constitute are : To ) Principio of the unit enter the philosophical and what's pedagogic b ) Principio of the historic, social and class-conscious character of education c ) Principio of the procedural character of the historic pedagogic phenomenon d ) Principio on the consideration of the historic pedagogic categories and ) Principio of the linkage, enter the unit and the educational diversity f ) Principio of the periodization of the historic pedagogic process.

The exposed foundations constitute the base to structure the methodology that presents itself in the present article. The general characteristics of this methodology are:

  1. It is a pertinent, flexible and integral process.

  2. You require the active participation of all the implicated in the process.

  3. The Cuban must make suitable herself to the historic pedagogic process and to the educational works of representative figures of Pedagogy.

  4. It is held on base of the biographical method or history of life.

Premises for the application of the methodology for the systematization of Francisco Ibarra Martínez's work and his contribution to the teaching of the history of Cuba (1905-1977):

  • You lean on the legal frame in use of the educational investigations at the Institutions of Higher Education (IES) and another educational levels. As from it, a proposal that the development of this process, where the importance to exalt the social image of the educating Cubans of the century ponders XX and his work itself enriches is done.

  • You must be consequent with the referent epistemic that they hold the methodology for the analysis of the historic background in the educational investigation.

  • You have to the social recognition of the personalities of the educational Sciences and his contributions at the magisterial sector ponder.

Procedures for the systematization of her educational life and works of educators put on the front of the century XX Cuban.

The essential metodológicos define two procedures themselves in investigation:

  1. Procedure contextual and epochal empoderamiento for an outstanding educator's study. B. Procedure generalizing systematization of the educational work of the educator. From now on, himself explicitan each one of them:

  2. Procedure contextual and epochal empoderamiento for an outstanding educator's study.

It allows studying to figure in his historic vicissitude, the investigation in the system of influences, the thought's currents and referent that they had influence in my whole life and work of the figure, in favor of the revelation of the authenticity of his educational work and pedagogic happened praxis in context. Forms you can proceed in:

To investigate in the theoretic necessary considerations for the study of the educational work of a figure of the educational thought Cuban. It allows determining the epistemic budgets and category essential for the study of the figure and meaning the place that occupies the educational work in the educational thought Cuban.

Determining the historic social context of the figure. This action makes possible identifying the educator put on the front in context. The figure in the historic, social, sociopolitical and educational time determined of life, educational practice and work must be framed. They determine currents, doctrines, tendencies and regularities that have influence in my whole life and educational task of the figure. Establishing the chronology of educational life and works of the personality. The esencialidad of this action consists in highlighting the more important facts of the life of the figure in a brief chronology. This has like purpose to determine the order and dates of the historic events the subject implicates itself in.

Determining the periodization of her life and works, tendencies and regularities in the aforementioned study. Of the consideration of the information and of the context in that the life of the figure or bus were developed, that stages, periods or sub identify themselves the stages or sub in periods at the trajectory the one it has passed for the educator's life, his tendencies and essential regularities.

B. Procedimiento generalizing systematization of the educational work of the educator: You allow to the analysis, construction and reconstruction systematized on her educational life and works of the educator, as well as the investigation of the new knowledges than emanate of the aforementioned contribution to the pedagogic theory Cuban.

Forms you can proceed in:

  • Determining dimensions and configurations for the educator's study. They identify the essential categories to accomplish this study during this action.

  • Systematizing the essential relations and new resulting knowledges of the work of the educator. This action gives recognition to, the establishment of the concepts and his essential relations, the contributions to teaching, like regularity that characterizes the behavior of the personality and his educational impression.

  • Revealing how they cause impact or they transcend the educational work in the formative process and in particular to the teaching of the history of Cuba. They determine indicators and another roads that enable the tracking, monitoring and evaluation of the impact about the knowledge that possesses on the educators put on the front of the century XX itself and in Francisco Ibarra Martínez's singular to the pedagogic theory Cuban.

Roads for the appropriation of the methodology: Workshops of reflection or critical opinion, the ones that can be introduced of opportune way, in the same dynamics of the meetings or scientific project sessions metodológico or academician that they unroll at the universities, educational institutions, fact-finding centers, to make good use of the sessions of scientific events pedagogic sets and tables of work where the pedagogic thought and the outstanding educators' practices spread out .

In addition, the income analysis and impact in the bus, the scientific intervening socialization scientific publications and the multiple triangulation to contrast the results obtained of the application of the different instruments and methods, and of the appraising criteria expressed by students, pedagogic bus, about the historic pedagogic investigations. It allows extracting the ideas in synthesis, this study than, in the pedagogic order and historiográfico, they are contained in the work of all the life and educational executorship.

Stages of the methodology for the systematization of educational Francisco Ibarra Martínez's work and his contribution to the teaching of the history of Cuba (1905-1977):

  1. Stage. Interpretative appropriation of the educational work of the figure.

  2. Stage. Determination of the authenticity of the contributions and contributions of the figure.

  3. Stage. Critical appraising verification of the transcendence of the contributions of the figure.

From now on, they exemplify each of the stages that integrate the proposed methodology:

  1. Stage. Interpretative appropriation of the educational work of the figure.

Objective: Guiding to the participants relating to it conceptual and how you have to come from for application the new proposal of model, with an eye to achieve bigger recognition in this type of investigation in the context of the educational Sciences. The contextual and epochal empoderamiento for an outstanding educator's study propitiates the procedure itself in this stage.

Actions potenciadoras of the interpretative appropriation of the educational work of Francisco Ibarra Martínez's figure and his contribution to the teaching of the history of Cuba (1905-1977):

  • Identifying the kind of educator that it be been going to study: Teachers of the locality, teachers or big pedagogic personalities, political personalities or the social educator.

  • Recognizing the educational potentialities of her life and works of the outstanding educators.

  • Guiding XX to the implicated in the model of the study of the work of educators put on the front of the century Cuban, his dimensions, configurations and regularity, stressing the theoretic basics to enhance the value of the history of the Education in Cuba.

  • Consensuar indicators and actions metodológicos that must have in account to systematize the process of study of representative figures of the educational thought Cuban themselves, attending to the new theoretic construction.

  1. Stage. Systematization of her life and works of outstanding educators Objective: Socializing the model of the study of the work of educators put on the front of the century XX Cuban, so that encourage the study of the educational work of the relevant personalities in individual, of Francisco Ibarra Martínez and his contribution to the teaching of the history of Cuba between 1905-1977, through the actions conceived for the continuous formation of the professionals in his dialectic relation, with the methodology.

Generalizing systematization of educational Francisco Ibarra Martínez's work favors the procedure itself in this stage (1905-1977). Actions for the systematization of her life and works of outstanding educators.

Implementing in the formation of pre-grade for the students of the races of the University:

  1. That contentses of Social Sciences, various modes of academic activities, about the treatment of the educational work of relevant personalities of the century receive XX in James of Cuba.

  2. Socializing through workshops, practical lessons, seminaries or another roads in the formation of pre-grade the importance of the history of life of this figure highlighted of the locality santiaguera. Incorporating Philosophy and Sociedad to the subjects of study, for students of another Social Comunicación's races, Derecho, Computer Sciences, Marxism-Leninism and Historia and Psicología, historic contentses on educational Francisco Ibarra Martínez's work.

  3. Developing activities or integrative tasks conceived with a professional and interdisciplinary focus between the subjects of study of the year, to crosswise the ones that students take after that looking up contentses systematized of the educational work of this illustrious thinker.

  4. Laying plans and socializing a teaching material with theoretic proposal metodológica to promote the knowledge of life, educational work and his legacy for the new generations of historians and Marxists.

  5. Giving the specialized lecture: “Transcendence of the historic educational work of the professor Francisco Ibarra Martínez and his contributions” to students of fourth year, Plan And.

  6. Propitiating the designing, according to the existent possibilities of the Educational Technology of virtual surroundingses, of learning that educational life and works of Francisco Ibarra Martínez promote the knowledge of her.

  7. Incorporating the most relevant aspects of the task and pedagogic Francisco Ibarra Martínez's thought in the sociopolitical, educational and instructive activities as part of Politic Ideological Trabajo's Educational Strategies and of races, years and groups, for the sake of stimulating the vocational formation, orientation, motivation and professional pedagogic (Open Doors and Grupos Scientific Estudiantiles) and communal- contexts reaffirmation (interventions member communal).

  8. Propitiating, from the University Extension, optional courses and another educational actions through the instruction that they contribute the knowledge of life, work and impression of the notable figure of Francisco Ibarra Martínez and his contributions to the teaching of the history of Cuba and to education.

For the formation of the professional of pre-grade:

To Optative course: “Philosophical social educational thought in James of Cuba: 1905-1977”. Races: Bachelor's degree in jure, Computer Sciences, Social Communication and Psychology. Year: 1er CD. Semester: I and Total, hours II: 20.

For the continuous formation of Marxismo's and Historia's professional of Cuba. He recommends to develop:

  1. Scientific seminary metodológico: “The study of Francisco Ibarra Martínez's contribution to the development of education and of the pedagogic theory Cubans”.

Workshop metodológico: “Possibilities of the subjects of study of Marxism-Leninism and Historia of Cuba to give interdisciplinary treatment to educational Francisco Ibarra Martínez's work to the teaching of the history of Cuba between 1905-1977 in James of Cuba”.

Workshop: “The didactic treatment to the contentses on the history of relevant personalities in James of Cuba during the Neocolonial and the Revolution in power”.

Course of postgrade: “The cultural patrimony and identity at the universities Cubans”. Total, of hours: 60 hours 2 Credits, 60 hours.

Course of postgrade: “Historic and comparative studies of education”, that it is given in the first module of the Mastery in Educación. Total, of hours: 260

Stage. Critical appraising verification of the transcendence of the contributions of the figure.

Objective: Appraising in what the objectives of the methodology have fulfilled measure themselves and give them each stage, the actions foreseen, as well as significance and transcendence of what's planned for the participants. This stage develops during all the investigation, in order to achieve it they went away accomplishing actions that they enable, applying the beginnings of the investigation when going appraising the effectiveness simultaneously and efficacy of the methodology during his implementation. Procedure generalizing systematization of educational Francisco Ibarra Martínez's work (1905-1977). Actions that guarantee a critical appraising position of the transcendence of the contributions of the figure:

  • Stimulating in different contexts the study and diffusion of the works of educators put on the front of education, like contributions to the theory pedagogy Cuban.

  • Appraising the importance, legacy, transcendence and impacts of the investigations that enhance the studies related with Pedagogy's representative figures Cuban in contemporaneity.

  • Applying the instruments to appraise the knowledge that they go obtaining the participants on the proposed model, where the distinctive particularities of the work of the educators put on the front of the century distinguish themselves XX Cuban, in individual of Francisco Ibarra Martínez and his contribution to the teaching of the history of Cuba.

  • Applying the instruments to know the professors' levels of satisfaction in the making and practicing for the actions of the methodology.

  • Interpreting the appraising criteria expressed by the participants on effectiveness and credibility that they allowed reflecting about his validity and adjustments of the methodology.

  • Filing for a self-appraisal to the teachers, investigators and students be more than enough what significance the actions accomplished in the methodology in his professional present-day life and which one or which ones had actions and or activities had a bigger significance for them and why, which one or which ones did not have it and why.

  • Evaluating the impact of educational Ibarra's work and his influence in the professional identity.

  • Reflecting with the participants to determine modifications and necessary adjustings to the methodology looking out on obtaining better results in next applications and experiences.

  • Evaluating of integral way the fulfillment of the objectives out of every stage as from the procedures of analysis established and the levels of obtained achievements.

Contributions and contributions of Francisco Ibarra Martínez's work to the teaching of the history of Cuba (1905-1977)

The rescue of the historic memory, the preservation of the identity and the culture systematize the principal contributions and Francisco Ibarra Martínez's contributions themselves, to the teaching of the history of Cuba ( 1905 - 1977 ), since an urgency in the present-day context is to determine the contributions to the education like resulting fact of the professional task of its main characters, a need in favor of the enrichment of the foundations of the pedagogic science constitutes besides Cuban like inheritance and contribution to the educational development in the vicissitude of the nation, in this article.

This methodology allowed appraising the work developed at the locality by the educator investigated, in mail with focuses wholly metodológicos, flexible, participating and own developers of the historic investigation, that allowed enriching the history of education and the pedagogy Cuban from a vision renovator and contextualizada.

  1. - Teacher of the history of Barrel.

Contribute 1,1 Proceso's Management of Enseñanza Aprendizaje of the history of Cuba and his didactic renewal.

  1. - School Address

Contribute 2,1. The educational step and school organization.

Contribute 3.Investigador and divulger of the history of Cuba. You stimulated the need of the historic investigation in unit with the divulgation of the results of his investigations. You demonstrated the dialectic existent relation between the teacher, the historian and the publicist, where teaching, investigation and socialization, music essential aspects. You examined and you criticized, with emphasis in the teaching of the history of Cuba. You had an ample theoretical production of interest for the history of Education and the Pedagogy in Cuba, in particular for the didactics of the teaching of history. You considered that it did not can separate the historic, perfecting investigation of the teaching of the history of Cuba. That way the Dr confirms it. Olga Portuondo Zúñiga: “He was a great investigator, passionate investigator. I do not forget that for him the quest, if was an investigation, was to the detail ”.

( ... ). The Dr's following testimony. c. Mildred of the tower ( 2021 ) confirms the above: ( ... ) you were a teacher par excellence and besides a great investigator ( ... ). 4. Study of relevant personalities of the history of Cuba.

Contribute 4,1. Investigation in my whole life and work of relevant personalities of the history of Cuba.

Contribute 5. Textbook: Chronology of the War of the ten Years. You enriched the philosophical, historic, educational, pedagogic conceptions and necessary didacticses for the treatment of the history of Cuba.

Contribute 6. Conception of the program: Lessons of Spanish Tongue. The conception enlarged surroundings to the teaching of the mother tongue that the teachers were possessing, suggesting authors' treatment Cubans of tales, novels, history, poetry and science and in particular José Martí's works.

Contribute 8. Elaboration of the program: Lessons of Natural Sciences.

Contribute 9. Member and institutions' collaborator of organizations. You promoted actions of transformation and I change socioeducativo, as well as his schools' work of educator and director in the principal events of the society, the Masonic Societies of Orient and of Geografía of Orient.

The qualitative interpretation of the results attained in the assessment of the pertinence of the principal results of the article, as from the opinion with specialists, the workshops of critical opinion and collective construction, the triangulation metodológica and the partial application of the contributions, they allowed corroborating the cientificidad and feasibility of the model and the methodology insinuated, that the perfecting of the process that is investigated, like alternative news for the reconstruction of the professional pedagogic culture and cultural Latin American and Caribbean identity, the recognition of the contributions of the educators put on the front of the centuries favor XX, particularly to the policy of the rescue of memoryHistoric, the moral values, the history and her Preservation of the patrimony.

Conclusions

The epistemological characterization and praxiológica of the present article, as well as the analysis of his historic background, XX in Cuba, that it does not allow increasing the power of a professional identity evidenced the limited answer in the study of the educating Cubans of the century. Everything it, reveal than, until now, you have not gotten an enough level for the systematization of the essential particularities of educational Francisco Ibarra Martínez's work and his contribution to the teaching of the history of Cuba (1905-1977).

The methodology for the systematization of the educational work of Francisco Ibarra Martínez and his contribution to the teaching of the history of Cuba between 1905-1977 allows concretizing the particularities of the theoretic model proposed through the stages, procedures and actions that conform her in practice, getting constituted in an important instrument metodológico to go into another personalities. The book Tramples On It infinite of Francisco Ibarra Martínez, as well as programs and formative actions for pre-grade and postgrade, they constitute roads for the concretion in the educational practice of the proposed methodology.

Present it methodology enriches the right now existent investigations for the study of relevant figures of the century XX Cuban and favors the development of the history of Education and national Pedagogy and premises; As well as that you become converted in source of consultation for the teachers in his process of continuous formation.

Referencias bibliográficas

Buenavilla, R. (2002). Pensamiento pedagógico de destacados educadores latinoamericanos. La Habana: Instituto Superior Pedagógico “Enrique José Varona”. [ Links ]

De Armas, N.; Lorences, J. y Perdomo, J.M. (2003). Caracterización y diseño de los resultados científicos como aportes de la investigación educativa. Universidad Pedagógica Félix Varela. http//ffp.ceces.upr.edu.cu/repositorio/textuales/Artículos/Aportesdelainvestigación.pdfLinks ]

Oliva, O.; Senú, I. y Santisteban, M.M. (2019). Francisco Ibarra Martínez: innovador de la Pedagogía cubana. Opuntia Brava. Libro Ciencia e Innovación Tecnológica . Vol. XII. [ Links ]

Oliva, O.; Senú, I. y Girón, O. (2020). Francisco Ibarra Martínez: un maestro martiano. Maestro Y Sociedad, p.37-50. https://maestroysociedad.uo.edu.cu/index.php/MyS/article/view/5261Links ]

Oliva, O. (2021). La huella infinita de Francisco Ibarra Martínez: El maestro, el historiador, el precursor. Roque Libros (1ra ed.). [ Links ]

Ramos, G. (2019). Monografía del proceso histórico-pedagógico: Consideraciones metodológicas para su estudio y categorías fundamentales. [ Links ]

Senú, I. (2016). Contribución de la obra pedagógica de la maestra cubana Lidia Esther Turner Martí a la formación de los profesionales de la educación. (Tesis de Doctorado). Universidad de Oriente. Santiago de Cuba. [ Links ]

Senú, I.; Turner, L. y Cubela, J.M. (2017). Basamento histórico-metodológico de sistematización de la obra pedagógica de personalidades relevantes del siglo XX y XXI: una perspectiva desde la hermenéutica. Investigación, Formación y Desarrollo: Generando Productividad Institucional. 5(1). ISSN: 1390-9681. http://www.formación.edu.ec. [ Links ]

Senú, I.; Naranjo, C.U.; Torres, V.; Oliva, O. (2021). José María Queralt Vallvé: figura prominente de la Cultura Física del siglo XX en Cuba. Arrancada. 21(38). http://revistarranacada.cujae.edu.cu/index.php/arrancada/article/view/356Links ]

Zaldívar, Y.; Fuente, H.C. y García, M.E. (2020). La vida profesional de figuras relevantes de las ciencias médicas como incentivo en la formación de los estudiantes de Medicina. MEDISAN, 24(4), pp.744-755. ISSN: 1029-3019. http://scielo.sld.cu/scielo.php?script=sci_abstract&pid=S102930192020000400744Links ]

Received: January 15, 2022; Accepted: May 10, 2022

*Autor para la correspondencia:ormaroc@uo.edu.cu

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