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EduSol

versión On-line ISSN 1729-8091

EduSol vol.22 no.80 Guantánamo jul.-set. 2022  Epub 20-Jul-2022

 

Original article

Pedagogical strategy for the preparation of teachers and elementary school students as pioneer teacher-guides

Eglys Baró Moyet1  * 
http://orcid.org/0000-0002-3483-368X

Teresa de Jesús Guzman Leyva1 
http://orcid.org/0000-0003-3829-7033

1 Instituto Central de Ciencias Pedagógicas. La Habana. Cuba.

ABSTRACT

This article deals with the preparation of the teacher for the training of the student as a pioneer guide teacher of the Bachelor's Degree in Primary Education, a subject that makes evident the need for its improvement from the Integrating Main Discipline, with the intention of contributing to the training of a competent professional in Primary Education.

Keywords: Pedagogical strategy; Teacher preparation; Teacher Guide Pioneers, Primary Education

Introduction

In this article, the theoretical-methodological and practical foundation of the pedagogical strategy is presented. It also shows the components of the pedagogical strategy of teacher preparation for the training of the student of the Bachelor's Degree in Elementary Education as a teacher guide of pioneers from the Integrating Main Discipline.

In Higher Education, curricula have been improved based on the theoretical, methodological and practical contributions of the results of research in the field of Educational Sciences.

Chirino (2002) deals with the subject of preparation and recognizes this concept in its pedagogically directed character, conceived, designed and developed on the basis of the demands of the future performance of the education professional, and from this perspective, knowledge, skills, values and above all methods, are objects to be developed during preparation.

Based on the Primary School Model in Cuba, the model of the professional and the Plan of the educational teaching process corresponding to Plan E of the Bachelor's Degree in Primary Education, the preparation of the teacher for the training of the student as a pioneer teacher guide from the Integrating Main Discipline requires a study and deepening based on the results of research and the substantive processes developed in universities and their relationship with the educational institutions of the territories.

The Organization of Pioneers "José Martí" is a mass organization that groups Cuban children and adolescents, who voluntarily decide to belong to it, having the authorization of their parents and assuming the duties and rights of being members of it.

The objective is to elaborate a pedagogical strategy that contributes to the preparation of the teacher for the training of the student of the Bachelor's Degree in Primary Education as a teacher guide of pioneers from the Integrating Main Discipline.

Development

The transformation of the school must be in accordance with the demands of the present and future times through the establishment of a whole policy of change that can reduce the existing gap between the current state and the desired one in educational development.

In this process, strategies play an important role, which must operate with a systemic and dynamic vision for the solution of educational problems by creating relationships between science, school management, teachers and the pedagogical process. According to Sierra Salcedo, (2008)

Pedagogical strategy is the theoretical and practical conception of the direction of the pedagogical process during the transformation of the real state to the desired state, in the formation and development of the personality of the subjects of education, which conditions the system of actions to achieve the objectives, both in the personal, group and school institution. (p.38).

In this sense, it is stated "that it is the set of sequential and interrelated actions that, starting from an initial state and considering the proposed objectives, allows directing the development of the teaching-learning process in the school" (Valle, 2007, p.124).

The pedagogical strategy proposes actions to achieve, from different activities, a contribution to a more integral formation of the personality of the student of the Bachelor's Degree in Primary Education.

It places the student as the center and active protagonist of this teaching-learning process, enables interaction and communication, as well as raises the capacity for reflection, rational and affective-living learning for the formation of the student as a teacher guide of pioneers to which he/she aspires.

The strategy presented is pedagogical, it focuses on the activity of the teacher and the student, the former to teach the latter to learn. It gives importance to the students' protagonist attitude in the learning process, where they must commit themselves not only to the results obtained but also to the ways used to reach the proposed goals.

It is a strategy conceived by all, that is to say, collaborative, where the criteria of the collective of teachers of the different academic years were taken into account, about what is needed to improve in terms of pioneer work to achieve the formation of the student as a pioneer guide teacher, and the student is also asked for criteria about how they would like to receive this preparation from the teachers.

For the author, all of them have referred to the theoretical and methodological foundations of the "strategy", as they all coincide in aspects such as:

  • It is a way of expressing the direction of a process in education, based on objectives, needs, interests, projects, knowledge and the behavior of the subjects.

  • It responds to a contextualized referent, consisting of two essential moments, one theoretical and the other interventional, where human resources represent the core of development.

  • It shows the consistency, firmness, stability, coherence, resistance, solidity, duration of the expected behavior, by pointing out specific directions in the efficiency of results in education.

  • It is composed of practical elements (actions), so that there is an adequate connection between thought-action and to be able to efficiently transform educational realities.

  • It must consider a synergic logic of synthesis between the past, the present and the future.

  • The diagnosis constitutes its starting point, inasmuch as it reveals to take into account the potentialities of the subjects and processes that are the object of the change.

In the analysis of essential aspects expressed in the previous definitions, the author defines the pedagogical strategy of teacher preparation for the formation of the student of the Bachelor's Degree in Primary Education as a pioneer teacher guide from the Integrating Main Discipline, as a system of flexible methodological actions and procedures, adaptable with the objective at the University of Guantánamo, where the diagnosis, planning and direction of the work of the teacher and students through the subjects of the curriculum are taken into account, directed to the transformation from the current state to the desired one in the academic, labor, research and extensionist components.

This idea allows the formation of professionals for the Bachelor's Degree in Primary Education, which is concretized in the relationship between man, as a species; society, manifested in the context of action in life, at work and at school, and the institutions that bring together young people and adults for the development of their personality. This relationship is based on the principles of the sociology of education referred to by Blanco Pérez (2001) when he expresses that reflection and critical sense; commitment to intercultural and democratic values; coherence between theory and practice; the relationship between the end and the means of education and the emphasis on the education of values.

The above reveals the social conditioning of education, which is reflected in its purpose, in this specific case, the teacher who trains the student as a pioneer guide.

Social situation of development: it allows analyzing the particularities, both socially and individually, of the teacher's preparation for the training of the student as a pioneer guide of the Bachelor's Degree in Primary Education, taking into account the different concrete stages of psychic development, where he/she must satisfy the requirements of both poles, adjustable to the education process.

The pedagogical strategy is based on the possibilities that it offers for the achievement of the objectives in the preparation of the teacher should be planned, executed and controlled as part of the leading work of the teacher in function of the formation of the students as a pioneer guide teacher from the Integrating Main Discipline, with its fundamental form of teaching which is the pre-professional practice.

It is considered necessary for the teacher to prepare activities for work practice, which are developed from the subjects of the curriculum where they integrate the knowledge that enhance the training as a pioneer guide and especially in the subjects that contribute to Primary Education (the didactics of: Spanish Language, Mathematics, The World We Live In, Labor Education, Physical Education, Civic Education, Natural Sciences, Geography of Cuba, Computer Science) through the use of ways, methods, procedures and means of teaching for the achievement of active, reflective and developmental learning.

All the elements described are manifested in a systemic interrelation, therefore, in the implementation it works as an integrated system of elements.

The strategy is developed in two fundamental directions:

  • The first is related to the preparation of the teacher for the formation of the student as a pioneer guide teacher from the Integrating Core Discipline, in order to support the realization of teaching, extracurricular and extracurricular activities.

  • The second direction, with the formation of the student as a pioneer guide teacher, from the Integrating Main Discipline.

Stages of the pedagogical strategy

General objective: to design a system of actions that favor the preparation of the teacher for the formation of the student as a pioneer guide teacher, from the Integrating Main Discipline, of the Bachelor's Degree in Primary Education of the University of Guantánamo.

Specific objectives:

  • To diagnose the preparation and needs of the teacher for the formation of the student as a pioneer guide teacher of the Bachelor's Degree in Elementary Education.

  • To characterize the student as a pioneer guide teacher of the Bachelor's Degree in Elementary Education, from the Integrating Main Discipline.

  • To contribute in the preparation of the teacher for the formation of the student as a pioneer guide teacher from the Integrating Main Discipline, taking into account the components of the process.

  • To carry out the actions for the formation of the student as a pioneer guide teacher of the Bachelor's Degree in Elementary Education from the Integrating Main Discipline.

  • To establish forms, ways and methods for the training of the student as a pioneer guide teacher.

Planning and Execution: the main actions included in the pedagogical strategy are planned and executed.

Its objectives are:

  • To structure the actions from the methods, ways, procedures that allow the interaction between teachers and students.

  • Implement the designed actions of the teacher preparation:

Address: Teacher preparation.

Actions

  1. Methodological meeting to present, design and execute the program elaborated by the author for the preparation of the teachers of the career, discipline and years collective, with tutors of the university and the teaching unit for the formation of the student as a pioneer guide.

  2. Demonstrative methodological class in which the activities of the booklet are socialized where the contents of the different subjects are demonstrated for the preparation of the teachers for the formation of the student as a pioneer guide, from the Integrating Main Discipline.

  3. Methodological workshops with the pedagogical collective where experiences are socialized about the potential of the contents of the subjects for the preparation of the teachers for the formation of the student as a pioneer guide.

  4. Selection of the objectives, contents and forms of organization of the programs of the subjects that contribute to the preparation of the teacher for the formation of the student as a pioneer guide, from the Integrating Main Discipline.

Recommendations to the teacher for the stage:

Actions:

  1. In the methodological meeting, the program elaborated by the author is presented, as well as the preparation of the subject that allows the theoretical and methodological preparation of the teachers, who will participate in the application of some actions of the pedagogical strategy. In the same way that the program is analyzed, it is adapted to the reality of the context where it is applied.

  2. The workshops in this case constitute an important way for group reflection on the problem to be solved and thus provide a solution in correspondence with the contexts in which they are manifested.

  3. The methodological workshops as a whole have as an objective the preparation of the teacher for the formation of the student as a teacher guide of pioneers from the Integrating Main Discipline.

  4. The work procedure in the different workshops will be developed as explained below:

  • Each workshop is structured by subgroups, the subject collectives, where they will present their reasoning on the analyzed topic and will discuss the doubts and criteria that arise. In addition, they will reflect on how they can be taken to the context of education.

  • In these sessions, the experiential aspect is emphasized as a way to impart topics of interest for the work with pioneers, and they are treated by specialists, where a wide exchange among all the participants is encouraged, to prepare the teacher in the formation of the student as a pioneer guide teacher.

  • At the end of the session there will be a collective elaboration under the guidance of the workshop coordinator for a reflective debate, confrontation of ideas by each of the members of the group. The conclusions of the workshop will be drawn and the search and analysis of the information on the topic of the next workshop will be oriented as a way of motivation with the corresponding recommended bibliography.

  • The essential purpose of the workshops is to promote dialogue, the participation of all, interaction, the opportunity to express the experiences on the analyzed and discussed topic and to look for scientific, practical, measurable solutions that allow a change in the way of acting of the students in the preparation of the teacher for the formation of the student as a teacher guide of pioneers from the Integrating Principal Discipline.

  • The themes of the workshops will be analyzed in the methodological and management bodies and included in the department's work system. The proposal of methodological workshops is presented below:

Workshop 1. The forms of organization of the components for the formation of the student as a pioneer teacher-guide from the Integrating Core Discipline.

Objective:

To prepare teachers in the elaboration of activities taking into account the forms of organization of the components and contents of the pioneer work in the different subjects from the Integrating Core Discipline.

Workshop 2. The class, a fundamental way for the formation of the student as a pioneer teacher-guide from the Integrating Core Discipline.

Objective:

Socialize knowledge about the role of the class as a fundamental way of preparing the teacher for the formation of the student as a pioneer guide, based on the experiences and knowledge acquired in the methodological documents on pioneer work to link the content of the subject with those of pioneer work and to achieve the formation of the student as a pioneer guide teacher from the Integrating Main Discipline.

Workshop 3. Marti's work for pioneer guides. His contribution to the development of motivation.

Objective:

  • To elaborate activities in each year related to the pioneer work to be developed by the students in the investigative work practice about the potentialities of Marti's work for the formation of the student as a pioneer guide teacher from the Integrating Main Discipline, taking as a base the experiences of the students and the knowledge acquired in the pedagogical practice for the development of motivation.

Taller 6. Nuestras experiencias en la formación del estudiante como guía de pioneros.

Objetivo:

  • Exchange experiences among teachers and students of each year of the career about the training of students as pioneer guides from the Integrating Major Discipline.

In this workshop, the contents of the curriculum are problematized based on the situation detected, for which it is necessary to search for scientific and updated information so that new ideas can be generated and communicative products can be elaborated.

The workshops will be developed with the main teachers of the subjects and will be organized in such a way that everyone can express their criteria, where the interdisciplinary relations between the subjects will be specified.

The objectives, contents, methods, means and evaluation to be used in each of the forms of organization will be selected to favor the modes of pedagogical professional performance in which the student will participate. To this end, it is necessary to specify how the student will identify, understand, explain, value, propose, argue, locate, and how they will be evaluated, whether in team work or in the solution of conflictive situations that may arise.

The evaluation criteria are analyzed in order to establish the treatment of the contents and the interdisciplinary relations between the subjects that comprise the subjects.

It is important to consider the integral treatment of the cognitive, affective, motivational, axiological and creative aspects as components of the personality, through the satisfaction of the needs of those who are preparing for the exercise of the profession.

The following are the activities designed and suggested to be applied during the development of the different forms of organization of the process: Activities elaborated for teachers in different subjects:

Activity 1 Title. Labor education as a way to learn to recognize knots.

Objective: to demonstrate from the content of the subject itself the mastery of the different types of knots.

Teaching task

  1. Take a tour of your school yard or garden and collect different types of branches, make the knots of the scarf, simple, sailor's knot and the knot of the shoes.

  2. With your troop, make a watering can out of the plastic materials you collected for the care of the medicinal and fruit plants you planted in your school garden.

  3. Make a model where you sketch a small representation of nature.

  1. Based on what you observed during your tour of your schoolyard, draw a picture of what you observed.

  2. Why should you, as a pioneer explorer, protect nature?

Activity 2 Title. Applications of Natural Sciences

Objective: to value the importance of camping.

Teaching task

  1. What are the processes that originate mountains called? What should the pioneer explorer keep in mind when camping?

  2. If you are on a camping trip and you are in charge of lighting the campfire and you run out of matches, what would you do to fix it? Keep in mind the precautions for using fire. Mention the types of fire you can use.

Consequence of fires?

Activity 3

Title. Civic education and traffic

Objective: to know the traffic laws

Teaching task

  1. - Mention the traffic signs you know. Why is it important to know them and take them into account? Relate this content to the clues and signs you know about the Pioneer Explorer Movement.

  2. - Locate the educational software "Explorer's Journal" to answer the following questions.

What is the pioneer scout logo and the law of this movement? Tell what requirements must the pioneer scout know to be categorized in his grade?

In which pioneer movement do you participate that relates you to nature?

  1. _____Social action pioneer movement.

  2. _____Pioneer movement for the recovery of the future.

  3. _____Pioneer movement of creative pioneers.

  4. _____Sports movement.

  5. _____Pioneer movement of art lovers.

  6. _____Pioneer explorers' movement.

  1. 4. - Do you justify the usefulness for your daily life as an explorer?

Activity 4 Title. Pioneering work in Mathematics

Objective: to identify the mathematical contents that favor pioneer work.

Teaching task

  1. - Which geometric figures would you use to draw the flag? When you point it out, draw them and solve the activity below?

Triangle circle rectangle

9-3+18/2 9.9 12+42-6.8

  1. - Maria has a rope 6 dm long. To make a rustic backpack she needs a tenth of the rope. How many centimeters of rope does she need? What is the backpack for? How would you make it and what means would you use to make it?

60 cm __ 10 cm __ 6 cm __ 5 cm __

Luis took 3 minutes to climb and Pedro 180 seconds. Mark the correct answer with an x.

  • ----Luis took longer

  • ----Pedro took the longest time

  • ----Luis arrived first

  • ___Pedro arrived first

  • ___They both took the same time ___Luis and Pedro took the same time

Activity 5 Title. The Spanish language in pioneer work.

Objective: to identify the pioneer contents that favor the work in the Spanish language.

Teaching task

  1. Write down what the slogan means: Pioneers for Communism "We will be like Che"!

  2. Through the text "The flight of the turtledove".

What does it bring to you as an explorer? List no less than five contributions that relate to you as an explorer.

Activity 6 Title. The History of Cuba for life

Objective: to identify the pioneer contents related to the History of Cuba.

Teaching task

  1. Tell which were the stages through which the History of Cuba went through. How does this content relate to the background of the "José Martí" Pioneer Organization.

  2. Mention some of the most notable figures of the History of Cuba to which the main figure of the pioneer organization is related.

  3. Order chronologically the antecedents of the organization:

  1. _____Adopts massive character the Union of Pioneers of Cuba.

  2. _____Delivery of the Replica of the Yacht "Granma", the highest distinction of the Ministry of the Revolutionary Armed Forces, to the Organization of Pioneers "José Martí".

  3. _____Creation of the Association of Young Rebels.

  4. _____The Union of Pioneers of Cuba becomes the "José Martí" Pioneers Organization, membership is extended up to 9th grade.

  5. _____The "Ernesto Guevara" Pioneers Central Palace is inaugurated by Fidel.

  1. - In 1977 the Union of Pioneers of Cuba becomes the "José Martí" Pioneers Organization; membership is extended to ninth grade.

  2. Why our commander in chief Fidel Castro Ruz decided to change the existing slogan for the one related to the Che, explain with no less than three ideas.

In the methodological teaching work, it will be taken into account what is stated in the Ministerial Resolution 210/ 2010 in Chapter V of the directions and forms of methodological work, in particular Article 44 directed to the forms of teaching-methodological work, where different types of methodological activities are considered, according to the characteristics of the career and that constitute important requirements for the preparation of teachers in the pedagogical professional orientation.

Direction: Formation of the student as a teacher guide of pineros from the Integrating Main Discipline.

Actions:

  1. Preparation to establish from the subjects the contents that have an output from the different subjects.

  2. Participation in experimental teaching activities that motivate them towards the contents of the preparation of the teachers in the formation of the student as a pioneer guide from the Integrating Main Discipline.

  3. Execution and control of the activities designed in the joint activity, where it demonstrates the importance of the preparation of the teachers in the formation of the student as a pioneer guide teacher from the Integrating Main Discipline.

  4. Search for the necessary information about the contexts of performance of the education professional and its socialization.

  5. Selection of the organizational form where he/she plans, executes and controls the content to be taught.

  6. Observation of activities in the work practice, which demonstrate the training system through extracurricular and extracurricular activities.

  7. Selection and elaboration of teaching aids to be used in the selected teaching activity.

  8. Presentation and defense before the group of students of the selected teaching activity where it creatively demonstrates the importance of the teacher's preparation for the formation of the student as a pioneer teacher guide from the Integrating Main Discipline.

  9. Development of research on personalities in the field of pioneer organization.

  10. Development of an event at school level where students present their teaching activities.

  11. Participation in a class festival where the linking of students' content and experiences are shown.

  12. Participation in scientific events in the faculty, where the student demonstrates his experience as on the pioneril theme.

Recommendations to the student for the stage:

Search for documents, materials that provide information on the subject, to organize meetings, tributes or conferences on the significant dates of the organization.

Conclusions

In general, the pedagogical strategy of teacher preparation for the training of the student of the Bachelor's Degree in Primary Education as pioneer teacher guide its articulation in the methodological work taking into account that it is the way for the concretion of all the educational activities, of intra and inter-sectorial, intra, inter and transdisciplinary articulation in relation to the needs, possibilities and demands to achieve the end and the corresponding objectives.

It is essential to involve the Association of Pedagogues, the UNEAC, the CDR, the FMC; the Association of Combatants as organizations that can support the educational work, as well as work centers close to the area and of great utility for the integral formation; as well as the OPJM, the Union, the UJC and the PCC in each of the centers should be mobilizing agents of all these factors in the use of the resources of the network and others within their reach to socialize and introduce the results of their research and advanced experiences, to meet the potentialities, needs and deficiencies of teachers through the use of the resource centers of the network.

Referencias bibliográficas

Chirino Ramos, M.V. (2002). Perfeccionamiento de la formación inicial investigativa de los profesionales de la Educación. (Tesis de Grado). Instituto Superior Pedagógico "Enrique José Varona" de La Habana, Cuba. [ Links ]

Sierra Salcedo, R. A. (2008). La estrategia pedagógica, su diseño e implementación. Pueblo y Educación. [ Links ]

Valle Lima., A. D. (2007). Algunos modelos de la investigación pedagógica. Pueblo y Educación. [ Links ]

Received: February 05, 2022; Accepted: May 22, 2022

*Autor para la correspondencia:eglysbaro@nauta.cu

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