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Mendive. Revista de Educación

versión On-line ISSN 1815-7696

Rev. Mendive vol.18 no.1 Pinar del Río ene.-mar. 2020  Epub 02-Mar-2020

 

Original article

Social interaction skills: a bridge to inclusion

Iris Valdés Valdés1  * 
http://orcid.org/0000-0002-7689-6224

Sonia Guerra Iglesias2 
http://orcid.org/0000-0003-3720-0535

Magalis Camargo Ramos1 
http://orcid.org/0000-0003-0853-1036

1 Universidad de Pinar del Río "Hermanos Saíz Montes de Oca". Cuba

2 Universidad Laica “Vicente Rocafuerte”. Guayaquil. Ecuador

ABSTRACT

The inclusive education happens of the conviction that the right to education is a human basic right that is in the base of a fairer society, to achieve this right, has the new generations' formation to go through an educational process of quality for all. It supposes an impulse to enable the schools in order to meet all the students, as part of an inclusive system and not like isolated practices of special nature. The present work has as objective to offer learning situations that can be used in the process of teaching learning of the subject of Spanish Tongue to favor the abilities of social interaction at an inclusive school based in didactic procedures to favor the interactions in the different contexts and in this way contributing to its social inclusion where we all needed to be included. Theoretic, empiric methods and mathematical statisticians that they allowed compiling, interpreting and processing the information. The learning situations are stung with in the didactic conception of the subject of study Spanish Tongue for the included students. Of great worth is the corrective compensatory and developer character of the education of the students with educational special needs that sees itself reflected in this investigation considering its potentialities and needs.

Keywords: of learning

Introduction

In recent years, it has been written, published and discussed around educational inclusion. The notion of an inclusive school became a strong trend and even policies of a large number of educational systems, declared in official documents.

The central idea of educational inclusion is that the school must guarantee quality education for all its students, despite the differences that may exist between them, whatever they may be.

Therefore, the school is conceived as an institution open to inclusion, while socializing, guaranteeing a differentiated and personalized attention in response to the educational needs of its students where family and community play a fundamental role.

In the inclusive school, attention is given to each student with educational needs, even to those more complex limitations that are named as special educational needs such as sensorial, intellectual, motor, verbal, or those cases of mismatches in learning or learning. Behavior, associated with difficulties or deficiencies in family and / or social return, or with the combination of several factors that negatively influence the development of the school.

The educational inclusion preconceives to the school open to diversity, as a flexible entity that must comply with the requirements of students, family and community that offers variety of educational initiatives, aid, support and resources according to the needs and potential of each educating, promoting its development.

That is why the school and its environment should be placed as the center of the process in the school institution.

It is not the idea to change educational contexts today for tomorrow; educational inclusion is a process that will take place to the extent in which all those involved are prepared for it.

Regarding the educational inclusion of great significance, the studies carried out byPrioretti (2016) appear;Echeita Sarrionandia (2017);Ortiz Jiménez, Figueredo Canosa, López Meneses & Martín Padilla (2018)when assessing the purpose and implementation of inclusion in providing opportunities to learn to all schoolchildren based on an interaction between them.

Educators should never expect homogeneous groups, even in cases where prior selective processes mediate , but students should never be labeled or classified as bad and good, those who learn and those who do not, those who advance the most and those who least they do it, those who perform the task more quickly and those who take longer; It is true that it is necessary to know the particularities and needs of each student not in order to know what educational response we are going to offer, what he needs, in order to teach, educate, and develop it as he demands.

If the teacher's response is positive, if from the outset he has the conviction that everyone can learn, remain in the education system, develop and achieve success, if he understands his direct responsibility in the personal growth of each of them and decides to face the challenge, then an important first step towards inclusion will be guaranteed.

Equal opportunities have to do with the response to diversity, with the compensation of social inequalities, with attention to special educational needs and with the connection to the different contexts where the student develops, to the extent that It requires the implementation of the same principles for everyone because being different is common.

Of great value to realize, the educational inclusion of schoolchildren with special educational needs is to develop social interaction skills to be able to make an assertive communication, where they can offer a solution to situations that arise

Social interaction skills have been studied by various researchers :Peña Bermúdez (2006);Monjas Casares, Benito Pascual, Elices Simón, Francia Conde, & García Larrauri (2009);Caballo Manrique (2009);Caballo Manrique, Salazar, Irurtia Muñiz, & Olivares Rodríguez (2014);Valdés Valdés (2015);González Román (2016);Bernal Martín (2017); In their research they offer tools to provide students with skills that allow them to establish social relationships in the contexts where they interact.

Therefore, the fundamental emphasis should be made so that the school assimilates the necessary modes of action to appropriately, independently, the knowledge that will later be required in their professional work and in their transit through life, and that serves to establish adequate social relationships. One of the aspects that needs to be oriented in the education of the human being is social relations, since in each of the things that it does there is a component of relations with others , which determines, to a large extent, (facilitates or hinders) Personal development and the pursuit of happiness.

From this perspective,Guerra, S. Guirado, VC (2013)raised on:

" … Constitutes an aspiration of the educational systems and a goal of education on a social scale in which it is intended that all students feel part of the group to which they belong and can interact in different activities whether they are civic, cultural sports, recreational or academic, that prepares them for the transit to other educational levels, for the family and for their development in tasks of the community" (p.21)

In correspondence with this view is that in this paper it is possible to provide options for teachers to satisfy every school regardless of their needs and where social interaction skills play an essential role.

Materials and methods

To carry out this research, we worked with sample groups in the Pinar del Río province formed by: 87 schoolchildren with intellectual disabilities in the first cycle, 12 teachers , 7 directors of Special Education, 87 family members of schoolchildren with intellectual disabilities in the first cycle, 10 founders and directors of special schools in Cuba and Pinar del Río.

It was taken as the basis of analysis the dialectic approach -materialist , different methods and research techniques that supported the application of each were used, in the theoretical one the logic historic to reveal the main stages and approaches in the study of educational inclusion and the development of social interaction skills were used; the analytical-synthetic to determine the elements that allow to base everything related to educational inclusion and the development of social interaction skills ; The modeling made it possible to structure the learning situations for the development of social interaction skills and thus favor the process of educational inclusion.

Also empirical methods such as document review to examine how it is conceived in different documents methodological, regulatory as well as the jobs of the school, the development of social interaction skills of students with intellectual disabilities in the 1st cycle in an inclusive school, were performed and teachers were interviewed to know their views on the development of social interaction skills and their influence on the educational inclusion of students with intellectual disabilities from the perspective of teachers of the first cycle of education students with mental retardation, directors of special schools and methodologist attending Spanish Language course, former teachers and principals of special schools in Cuba and Pinar de Rio ; is performed addition observation classes to ascertain how it contributes to the development of social interaction skills ; as well as the pedagogical test to determine the current state of the students of the first cycle with intellectual disability in the development of social interaction skills , the family survey is conducted to know the parents' criteria regarding the development of interaction skills social reached by their children, before and after introducing the learning situations into pedagogical practice.

In addition, the experiences systematization to reflect critically based on pedagogical lived experience, about the implementation of the situations of elaborated learning was carried out.

For the processing of the information collected during the investigation, descriptive statistics were used, for the tabulation of the data, the construction of tables of distribution of the absolute, percentage frequencies and the construction of the graphs, as well as for the tabulation of the tests teaching of the final diagnosis was used to test the signs.

The use of these methods allowed issuing criteria on the essential aspects of the object of study , highlighting the limitations between achieving levels of independence for life and the few resources to offer information about themselves, initiate, sustain and intervene in conversations; social participation in different activities that require interaction with the "others" is limited by the insufficient use of elocutive forms, together with the lack of proportionality between verbal, nonverbal expression and the poverty of their vocabulary; The dynamic that is followed in the teaching-learning process means that the contents of the Spanish Language subject are extrapolated to social life ; however , in the didactic treatment of its components social interactions are not a priority; Teaching actions are insufficient to take advantage of their possibilities in the creation of learning situations that favor the development of social interaction skills and lack of integrality in the support offered by the family and other educational agents to motivate interactions that favor positive modes of action in different contexts.

Results

The teaching-learning process of schoolchildren with intellectual disabilities has important results, but despite this, it was necessary to make a diagnosis of the development of social interaction skills of these first-year schoolchildren from the Spanish Language course, which allowed us to offer a vision of its current state

The analysis of the results of the diagnosis of the development of social interaction skills of schoolchildren with intellectual disabilities from the Spanish Language subject was carried out taking into account the assessments made by each of the members of the sample groups from the variable and its dimensions, subdimensions and indicators.

When analyzing dimension one: activity of the teacher in the development of social interaction skills of the schoolchild with intellectual disability from the Spanish language subject, it was assessed as inadequate, teachers do not always manage to establish the relationship between each of the categories of the didactic, they do not reveal the guiding role of the objective, as well as the intentionality of each one for the development of social interaction skills that favor the preparation for the life of these school children, but it is considered that there are potentialities for their transformation.

The reason that teachers do not offer intentionality to the development of social interaction skills in their school is derived from that normative and methodological documents to be used do not have explicit these guidelines and only teacher works so it appears in those documents, and theoretical and methodological guidelines appear in the development plan for the specialty of disability, but not how to use it in the subjects of the curriculum and, specifically, in the subject Spanish Language.

In analyzing the two dimensions: activity of the student in the development of social interaction skills of school with mental retardation from the Spanish language course can be assessed inadequately, seeing reflected in the limited domain of cognitive elements, procedures and attitudes, the desired levels in the development of social interaction skills are not achieved.

When considering the assessment criteria of the interviewed, they report that schoolchildren still cannot make presentations, be polite and kind, join the game, cooperate and share, start, maintain, end and join the conversation of others or a group, talk and be courteous to adults, among others.

The variable development of social interaction skills of the student with intellectual disability from the Spanish language subject was evaluated as inadequate, this means that the preparation of the schoolchild to develop these skills is not always encouraged, being reflected in the results of the instruments applied, For this reason, they do not always contribute to the preparation for adult life independent of them.

The study revealed causes or regularities of the process of developing social interaction skills of students with intellectual disabilities.

The main causes detected are related to the lack of preparation of teachers to face the teaching-learning process linked to social interaction skills, mainly due to the non-existence of documents, orientations and preparations that explain how to do it; in schoolchildren it is due to the lack of cognitive activities that serve to master procedures and attitudes necessary to perform interactions.

Regularities are related to the intentions of the actions taken , where linking the skills of social interaction with life situations; the possibilities offered by the content for students to communicate verbally or nonverbally; in a way that facilitates the presentation of situations of learned learning that serve as a model for the schoolchild; the exploitation of the potential of the class for the development of social interaction skills; the extrapolation of the knowledge acquired in the class to situations presented to them in the context where they interact; the use of gestures to each communicative situation that occurs in any context; manifestation of appropriate attitudes in their independent social interaction; Little control of the treatment to the didactic categories for the development of social interaction skills , the family has knowledge of the role they should play, but does not always favor the learning of the social interaction skills of their children.

Based on these results, learning situations were developed to favor social interaction skills in students with intellectual disabilities in the first cycle who are in the process of educational inclusion.

Learning situations, understood as a didactic resource in which social interaction skills are integrated, require the diversification of scripts or formats whose essential core is social interaction. The above is assumed from the historical-cultural approach, which allows us to establish links between different ways of learning social interaction skills and the regularities of their psycho-pedagogical development.

Learning situations because of their relevance to the development of social interaction skills will be conditioned by contextualization, integration and diversification. From the didactic point of view, they respond to the objective, based on a given content and favor the application of several methods and procedures. They qualify the forms of organization and are used in the framework of the evaluation.

An analysis of the didactic procedures that, in the author's opinion, respond to the learning situations that the schoolchild with intellectual disabilities will face most frequently in everyday life is carried out.

The description: in the oral text it is the form of representation of the individual concrete or abstract by words; it consists of exposing the qualities of objects, phenomena, processes and beings, based on the perception that the individual has managed to shape about it and accumulates data and impressions about the described object that facilitates pretension as a whole. Orient attention to those most significant details that characterize the object. The schoolchild with intellectual disability will use it more frequently in their social interaction, to the extent that they exercise sufficiently in the classroom because it helps to make these subjects aware of the world around them. This is a very important aspect because these schoolchildren tend not to discern the essential when describing, to focus their attention on an object isolated from the set, regardless of whether or not it is in the foreground.

The narrative: In the social interaction skills, it allows to present the sequence and consequence of the facts, its history, among other elements of interest. It is characterized by presenting them organized temporarily or through the cause-effect relationship.

This is essential for the scholar with intellectual disability, because it allows him to refer his personal experiences to other individuals, and must be much exercised in classes by developing criteria of appreciation in relation to the events that can and should be narrated and those that are not convenient to the social affections.

Conversation: a verbal act par excellence through which one's own thoughts are expressed and interpreted by others. The basic form allows interaction between two or more people. It has two modalities: as a spontaneous formative exercise and as an elaboration of ideas about a specific topic (heuristic conversation).

This last modality shows characteristics close to the debate and its function is to exchange different points of view to reach a valid conclusion.

The conversation can adopt two styles: formal and informal, which are determined, mainly, by the context and the communicative situation in which it is presented.

The use of dialogue or conversation allows students with intellectual disabilities to develop social interaction skills where they have to start maintain or intervene in it, using verbal or extra verbal communication.

Dramatization: it is the theatrical representation of a text where the most important is the result, in the representation for didactic purposes the most important is the preparation process that this includes. Intentionally it seeks to stimulate in the schoolchildren elements of language, to the same extent that the integral development of their personality is possible.

Through this, students with intellectual disabilities are encouraged to show positive attitudes related to discipline and responsibility, respect and admiration for peers, family and adults, as well as appropriate forms of independent social interaction.

The selection of the texts to be staged must be an element to be taken into account to ensure that its content is also educational and includes important ethical and aesthetic values for the education of schoolchildren. These must be in correspondence with the age and the psych pedagogical characteristics of the schoolchildren who participate in the dramatization.

In the use of these didactic procedures it is essential that the teacher adapt their goals according to the level of cognitive performance that this school is capable of achieving, the same happens with the levels of application and creative assimilation, which does not mean that no there is a transit, but it is slower and requires more systematization.

The learning situations proposed by the author are:

Subject: Help me to ...

Objective: to dramatize scenes where we find ourselves in a certain situation and need to ask for help through conversation.

Method: conversation

Procedures: observation, explanation.

Teaching means: learning situation, pictures, and videos.

Methodological guidelines

Teacher activity

In this activity, the teacher should motivate the students to use courtesy formulas and use an adequate tone of voice, to ask for help from a classmate or teacher, when addressing the public service, and even to claim or demand something that corresponds to us.

It is necessary to provide the levels of help so that all schoolchildren get to solve the activity. They will rely on the experiences of everyday life they have.

Student activity

Dramatize in pairs the situations we present below.

  • You don't understand a problem and ask the teacher for help.

  • You must go to an address that has been indicated to you and you don't know where the street is. You ask someone who happens.

  • You need information to enroll and you go to the school secretary.

  • You have been overcharged in your purchase and you go to the cashier.

Activity for the family and the community

They are guided by homework that when they leave school, accompanied by their parents, they will take the bus, and when they arrive at the bus stop, ask the last one and say thank you, and offer help to other people who arrive performing the same operation, It is suggested that parents write in their Spanish Language notebook How do they evaluate their children in this activity?

Evaluation

At the end of the activity the teacher will stimulate those couples who have done better, will take into account the gestures made, the tone of voice used, the fluidity and coherence of ideas, the expression of the face, among other elements .

Topic: I behave well in different situations!

Objective: to describe different learning situations that can be presented using verbal recipes in different situations aimed at the development of social interaction through conversation.

Method: conversation

Procedures: questions and answers, explanation, dramatization.

Teaching means: photos, pictures.

Methodological guidelines

Teacher activity

The teacher explains how to behave when we attend birthdays, weddings, christenings, births etc., as well as the phrases that we must use to be the most appropriate to each situation, and then invite them to perform different activities.

It will show the behavior that we must assume when we are in sad situations and the verbal recipes that we must use.

The teacher will rely, if possible, on situations that have happened to children in the classroom to perform the dramatizations

Student activity

  • Dramatize with your partners appropriate behaviors in case of attending birthday parties, to offer condolences.

  • Create separate different verbal recipes used: "Happy Birthday" "Congratulations" "Spend a happy day

  • Create situations to offer condolences. I'm so sorry! I accompany you the feeling! I'm so sorry!, hug, give a hand shake.

  • It sets appropriate nonverbal behaviors for each case: example, smile, greet, hug, kiss, eat, drink, and talk.

  • Dramatizes appropriate behavior, tone of voice and gesture in each situation that presents itself.

Activity for the family and the community

You will be guided by homework using verbal and nonverbal recipes with your family (mom, dad, brothers, grandparents, uncles) and friends of the community where you live, in case of birthday parties, "Mothers" day, Father's day brother cousin among others, give condolences to a friend who has lost a relative. In all cases, the family will guide and support you, taking into account each situation that comes your way.

Evaluation

The teacher will stimulate each school; you should always provide levels of help and support necessary for schoolchildren to do the activity alone.

To favor, didactically, the development of social interaction skills it is necessary to take into account the didactic components and give each one an intentionality to work with the social interaction skills.

These learning situations are options offered to teachers to clarify the ways that can be carried out to implement, in school practice, the theoretical and methodological requirements set forth above.

As options, they are susceptible to variation and enrichment based on the real conditions of the various school settings and the teacher's experience, as well as the diagnosis and characterization of each school.

The learning situations that are proposed offer the teacher the possibility of being able to link them with the contents of the Spanish Language. They include the components of teaching as basic elements for the development of a teaching-learning process, where the mentally retarded schoolchild faces daily life situations in the different contexts where he interacts, must take into account the didactic procedures learned in the Spanish Language classes as a complement to the teaching method, which will allow the creation of learning situations based on the characteristics of the content, promoting the cognitive, procedural and attitudinal development necessary for life.

The Spanish Language class constitutes a space of great value to develop the social interaction skills of the schoolchild with mental retardation, therefore, the fundamental purpose must be the constant care of these, and both the teacher and the schoolchildren should maintain the same interest in the aspiration to communicate as well as possible.

The special school must insert into society a pupil capable of developing and applying social interaction skills that allow him to communicate with his peers, express feelings, attitudes and opinions, respect the rights of others and thereby learn to be happy and make others happy.

For all the above, it is necessary to address specific recommendations for its instrumentation in the teaching-learning process of the Spanish Language classes where the teacher directs the schoolchild with mental retardation to actively, creatively and independently use the cognitive, procedural and attitudinal elements who have acquired, take into account their possibilities and needs according to the learning situation presented; project your points of view, deal with peers, family, neighbors, where you exert positive influences on those that best fit the subject being analyzed; play a leading role when inserted into the social environment that constitutes the classroom as a special communicative situation, interact with their teacher, friends and family in the process of their learning and demonstrate appropriate modes of action, participate in the decision making of aspects that affect to the whole group, use the development of recreational or other activities within the Spanish language class to achieve spaces of student-student , student-teacher, student-group , interaction , respect the rules of behavior adopted by the group to certain occasions; Stimulate in students the desire and the need for both verbal and nonverbal expression according to their possibilities; provide and take advantage of spaces so they can express themselves; guide appropriately, for a better use of the possibilities offered by the curriculum to interact in different contexts; use the didactic resources and supports necessary to achieve the development of social interaction skills.

The above elements create favorable conditions to encourage the development of social interaction skills from the subject Language Spanish, so they are considered as the necessary theoretical platform that enables up qualitatively, as far as treatment and care interaction skills referred. As a consequence of this, the teacher should be a linguistic pattern to their school, make use of a vocabulary extensive and varied, pronunciation should be clear and correct, so that provide an appropriate expression pattern; know how to create and conduct learning situations that put students with mental retardation in a position to apply the knowledge, procedures and attitudes necessary for their solution; provide the exchange within the group, where the mentally retarded schoolchild can reveal their criteria, opinions and assessments about the topic being addressed; achieve in them a sentence language and that they are able to extrapolate the acquired knowledge to situations of daily life that are presented to them in the different interactions they perform; offer attention in all activities carried out in verbal and extra verbal forms of expression ; or use methods and procedures that guide and activate schoolchildren towards the independent search for knowledge, as well as the presentation of acted situations that serve as a model for schoolchildren in similar situations in different contexts of action in the interactions presented to them.

In order to achieve a process where interactive relationships are established, the mentally retarded schoolchild must be taught how to do it. The teacher must create conditions to encourage the school to build certain ways and ways to: establish communication and know why he does it (to feel good, to get what he wants, so that others evaluate it well, to want it, to help you, to accept it, among others); understand that learning is an interactive process which necessarily implies the use of dialogue and joint work between the teacher, the schoolchild and among the students themselves; employ participatory dynamics and techniques in which situations are created that pose certain tasks to schoolchildren in which they feel the need to express themselves and actively participate in the construction of knowledge.

It is necessary to address aspects that must be taken into account to ensure that the communicative process in the Spanish Language subject acquires meaning within the teaching-learning process and favors the development of social interaction skills for this it is important to: create an interactive climate that encourages respect, trust, motivation and mutual acceptance. Therefore, it is necessary to encourage schoolchildren to participate and exchange in different situations; to bring the knowledge to the school using teaching methods and means according to their possibilities and needs where he is an active participant of the process that involves a joint search and reflection work.

This implies that the teacher in the classes must take advantage or create learning situations where schoolchildren face situations of daily life in order to boost their development, which offers the teacher the possibility to work in the area of near development.

The development of social interaction skills in schoolchildren also goes through the perspective of attention to individual differences, where sometimes it is necessary to use specific teaching resources, support and help to achieve the solution of a task.

It is essential the diagnosis that the teacher must have about the preparation of the student to put new demands on knowledge, continue contributing to the formation of a feeling or a quality, for any purpose that implies an advance in their training and development.

Discussion

The results obtained in the study carried out and in the application of the exposed methods and the search of bibliographies on the subject demonstrate the need to delve into it, due to the value of the development of social interaction skills in students with disabilities intellectual.

The elaborated learning situations exceed those that teachers do in order to achieve social interaction skills; based on the cultural historical approach on which the relationship between the subject and the object is based as a dialectical interaction in which there is a mutual transformation mediated by socio-cultural instruments in a given historical context, in which both social and instrumental mediation play fundamental role.

In this research it is assumed that social interaction skills must be formed and developed in the student, in their strategic sense, from the earliest ages, so that they become tools for compensation of the insufficiencies that they present in their cognitive activity and With this, they cause a progressive improvement of their functioning not only in the intellectual order but in general, that is, in the emotional, cognitive and behavioral aspects.

According toValdés Valdés (2015):

… Social interaction skills are the set of actions that a schoolchild must appropriate to address other people in order to request, offer, explain or develop any act of social life, demonstrating modes of action in line with society in which he lives.

The skills of social interaction are learned in different ways: by direct experience, at the end of each social interaction you can observe the behavior based on the reinforcement or ignorance of the behavior, if the student is often denied participation in the class, in a game, in a conversation, he will end up inhibiting himself and avoid situations in which he has to make demand to others; by observation, the student learns to act as a result of the exhibition through models.

The models to which it is exposed are very varied and must take into account the different contexts in which it interacts, here you can point out the role of television, the computer and other means with which the school interacts; Verbal or instructional, the student learns through what is said through spoken language through questions, instructions, compliments, explanations, verbal suggestions.

The relationship that can be established between social interaction skills and inclusion is of great value, and it is given because teachers, students and parents participate and develop a sense of community among all participants, whether or not they have disabilities or belong to one culture, race, religion, or another.

A functional and organizational reconstruction of the integrating school is sought: adapt instruction and provide support to all students, so that ordinary teachers and support teachers work together and in coordination within the natural context of the ordinary classroom, favoring meaning of belonging to the community and the need for acceptance, whatever the characteristics of the students.

It is good to point out some curricular aspects, to which attention should be paid to achieve the development of social interaction skills and that allows to favor an inclusive education and for this it must be achieved: verbal and nonverbal communication; socially appropriate attitudes (so that you can establish and maintain interpersonal relationships, and includes sex education); participation in social and recreational events (so that you learn to behave properly in the different activities and plan, use and take advantage of your free time).

In social interaction, skills there are important motivations for their development, such as daily life routines and face-to-face interactions, present in the bulk of activities. These largely structure and model what is done and thought; all social systems scale dependent interaction mechanisms face to face: the kind neglect, the greeting, the rejection of certain behaviors, among others.

It is of great value to analyze the role of the teacher in the development of social interaction skills , because he must participate from his knowledge in the enrichment of the most precious knowledge of culture and society; to help overcome obstacles in learning situations, provide necessary levels of help and teaching resources; contribute to the growth of each of its students; develop coherent and valid learning situations to achieve adequate social interaction; plan, organize and direct the aulic tasks.

In the development of social interaction skills the teacher is a mediator who participates, from their knowledge, in the enrichment of the most precious knowledge of culture and society, coordinates the activities to be carried out in the classroom, helps to overcome the obstacles of the learning tasks , providing levels of help, necessary teaching resources and contributing to the growth of each of its students, develops coherent and valid learning situations to achieve an appropriate social interaction, plans, organizes the aulic task that goes, from the enthusiasm excessive and uncontrolled, to the total rejection that must overcome with persuasion and perseverance, so that it leads to the achievement of acceptable discursive levels that propitiate their performance in everyday life.

But not only is the teacher an adult mediator in the process of developing social interaction skills : parents and other educational agents of the community must learn to use generalized support so that their children have a more active social participation in the family context and community It is necessary to stimulate communication.

The other child with the same condition becomes an active entity of their transformation and that of the rest of the classmates, since the exchange that occurs between them when performing a teaching task, when assessing the results of an exercise or the performance of a partner, in the dialogue in recreational activities, the conversation during a walk, the demonstration and approval in the realization of a physical exercise or an activity of enjoyment or joy, generates learning.

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Received: April 26, 2019; Accepted: November 25, 2019

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