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Mendive. Revista de Educación

versión On-line ISSN 1815-7696

Rev. Mendive vol.18 no.1 Pinar del Río ene.-mar. 2020  Epub 02-Mar-2020


Review article

Family participation in the socio-educational inclusion of students with special educational needs

Giselvis Aguiar Aguiar1

Yaima Demothenes Sterling2

Imilla Campos Valdés2

1Universidad de Pinar del Río "Hnos Saíz Montes de Oca". Departamento de Educación Especial y Logopedia. Pinar del Río. Cuba

2Instituto Central de Ciencias Pedagógicas. Habana. Cuba


The study covers the impact of family participation, from the relationship established between the family-school and community as agents and main socializing agencies in terms of socio-educational inclusion of students with special educational needs. Its objective is aimed at contributing to the awareness of educational environments in the face of the current challenges of socio-educational inclusion, based on the analysis of theoretical positions related to family participation in an inclusive educational context. The method of documentary analysis has led to suggest the updating and importance of family participation to the current inclusive reality, experienced by the authors for several years, which is presented as a challenge in the different current educational scenarios. The results correspond to the need to call for reflection of the people in charge of promoting family participation in terms of the socio-educational inclusion of students with special educational needs associated or not with disabilities, and to offer a set of elements to which they are entitled. we have called keys to success, which aim to ensure that family participation has the expected result and that the socio-educational inclusion of students with special educational needs associated with a disability is as satisfactory as possible.

Keywords: socio-educational inclusion; special educational needs; family participation


The family is the human group in which people live, where they manifest important psychological motivations and perform them in various activities. It its members meet the material needs, while developing complex motivational and affective processes closely related , where they acquire habits of conduct, standards of living and values. The family has been and remains the first socializing institution; His influence on the human being is the deepest and most enduring. (Arés, 2002;Martínez, 2016;Ramos & González, 2017)

The company determine family life and develops important qualities of the personality on his descendants. That is why the family has an important mission of social reproduction, because it ensures a kind of transmission between the social and the personal. The educational function of the family is fulfilled both spontaneously in the activities of daily home life, and through the conscious and voluntary intentions of parents and other relatives or adults.

In Cuba, the family constitutes the fundamental cell of society. The legal documents endorse it; among them, you can cite the Constitution of the Republic, the Code of Children and Youth, the Family Code, among others. They reveal the importance of family participation in educational institutions that promotes quality socio-educational inclusion.

This article reflects on the peculiar nature and importance of the family participation process in the socio-educational inclusion of students with special educational needs, which allows undertaking the complex task of educating diversity in conditions of educational inclusion.



The family assumed since the early years his starring role as a promoter of child development, to the extent that, prepares, organizes, conducts educational activities carried out with their children and evaluates their results.

The mother, the father, as well as other family members, are responsible for stimulating the development of their children and, for this, they must know how to do it.

Activities in socializing contexts make it possible to show families, with their own children, the contents and procedures suitable for stimulating basic social skills according to their age.(Arellanos & Peralta, 2015)

The family is irreplaceable in the educational role, has a fundamental role in the development of children. Family is not the only the responsible of the education of children. Everyone must analyze and determine their role in the educational process, in order to contribute to the integral development of the student giving a quality educational response.

Attention to people with disabilities is a priority in Cuban social policy, aimed at raising their quality of life and equalizing opportunities. It has been and remains the first socializing institution; His influence on the human being is the deepest and most enduring. The creation of educational institutions for students with disabilities is a reliable example of the guarantee of the right to education of these people, aimed at promoting the integral development and equalization of opportunities for their socio-educational inclusion. (Castro, Padrón, García, & Rodríguez, 2011)

The Cuban model of care for people with disabilities, intends its intersectoral nature from early childhood, with advice and monitoring at the municipal level, is a reference at regional and global level. Achieving true inclusion of people with disabilities is our challenge as a society to guarantee the full enjoyment of their rights.

Cuba, in the recent signing and ratification of the Convention on Persons with Disabilities, recognizes the knowledge and understanding of this human rights treaty of the 21st century, which is not common among the population and, as in many other countries, children, girls and adolescents with disabilities are often excluded from many aspects of society. Within the educational policies of some Western countries in recent decades, family participation has been consciously and actively intended.(Llevot & Bernand, 2015)

For the international scientific community the term family participation is approached in a modern sense as a synonym for parental involvement that can manifest itself in different ways and be exercised with different intensity.

Participation has been considered, for decades, as an educational quality factor. The Framework for Action of the Declaration of Salamanca, (1994) says that "should strengthen relations of cooperation and support among school administrators, teachers and parents" and "ensure that the latter participate in the decision-making, in educational activities at home and at school and in the supervision and support of their children's learning".(Salamanca Declaration, 1994, p.45)

Recent research declare the need to involve families and other community workers to ensure educative success (Verdugo & Rodriguez, 2008;Verdugo & Rodríguez, 2012;Arostegui, Darretxe, & Beloki, 2013); and improve relevant aspects of the functioning of the person, such as quality of life to(Verdugo & Rodriguez, 2011;Verdugo & Rodriguez, 2012)and the quality of family life. (Fernández, Montero, Martínez, Orcasitas, & Villaescusa, 2015)

For this article, the different stages through which the family's participation has passed internationally were analyzed. In the first stage, participation and the relationship between the family and the educational institution were scarce. In the second stage, they went through a period in which the family felt a client of educational services, which led them to demand services to meet their needs from this point of view. The third stage is cooperation, participation and involvement, in which parents exercise their role more consciously.

Participation has been and in some cases remains punctual, interested and occasional, but has increased in recent years with an active participation in the educational process, through parents interested in the management of the centers, involved in making of decisions and concerned about the education of their children. In the Cuban context, it has also studied how it has evolved the role of the family in society and its link with educative institutions.

From the 60s there are changes in the family due to the incorporation of women into work and revolutionary social activity. In the field of education, proactively work to ensure that parents support the schooling of children and their progress in studies. Teachers achieve greater cooperation from parents in school activities. However, the preparation of teachers to promote the participation of families is hardly addressed.

At the beginning of the 70s, the jump is marked because the National Education System assumes the organization of work with families in the school. A system of parents' schools is organized, which enables these topics to be dealt with simultaneously throughout the country, without taking into account family individualities, the orientation of the family through the media is extended.

The links between school and family are institutionalized in the regulation of the School Councils. In this decade, social studies are developed about problems of the Cuban family from various sciences. Since special education supports the diagnosis to families, the regular schoolteacher is instructed on how to characterize it, regardless of family participation.

In the 80s, the Group that attends family in the National Education System manages to develop a theorization about the family and their education. The family group of the Center for Psychological and Sociological Research is created. Scientific exchange events are expanded. There was a transition of pre-established programs for the whole country towards an approach to the needs of the context. Teachers are prepared for work with the family.

In the 90s, the interest of Cuban social sciences in the study of the family widened. Several problems at the international level (child abuse, addictions, among others) led to new reflections in Cuban society about the family and their participation.

Models of primary and secondary schools that include work with families are formulated. Teaching in university centers around the subject is reinforced. Cuban contributions in sociology, history, legal sciences and health sciences are recognized. All this reveals a more comprehensive vision of the social problems that affect families; the family environment manifests diverse problems towards its interior.

From the year 2000, the influence towards the family varies from the informative to the participatory. Family studies in the National Education System have increased. Various master's and doctoral thesis contribute to disseminate the previous conceptions and make numerous proposals to solve problems; but a specific branch program of family research is not created. The social importance of the School Councils and Day Care centers is resumed.

Currently, there is an increase in the participation of families, although it has been observed that it remains insufficient. It is up to the families to participate in the elaboration and revision of the Educational Project, a key document in the educational centers based on the principle of non-discrimination and inclusion, which includes: the characteristics of the cultural and social environment of the center, the values, the objectives and the priorities of action and the quality educational response for all.

The parents see the management of the center as a right and a duty of the same: the parents think and make decisions, recognizing therefore the right of the families to intervene in the educational centers.

As has happened in the international context, the role of families has gone from exercising a role of clients to the role of people involved and committed in the design of an educational institution for all and working in the educational institution they dream and want for their children in which all (professionals, families and community, together with the students) collaborate in their organization, management and development.

According toComellas, (2009)the presence of parents in educational decisions that have to do with their children is usually guaranteed, but there is a real lack of participation because the role they must play is not clearly defined.

At present, this objective has not yet been fully achieved. Education policies in the region do not fulfill the right to education for all. The family participation mechanisms in this process have not been created.

There are doubts about the joint work between the family and the different educational contexts. However, reciprocity must prevail, not always is interpreted in the same way by parents and teachers. What sometimes happens is that the institution holds the family responsible for their bad practices and vice versa, or they work in the same direction in terms of modes of action, instead of working in symbiosis, to achieve the desired end, the education of children.

Frequently, this educational overload in the institution indicates the confusion and / or the low responsibility of many agents - and not just the family - in the face of the challenge of educating children and adolescents in our time.

Surely, the emergence of networking experiences indicates the search for answers to the socio-educational challenges posed by a complex, diverse and changing social reality(Civís & Longás, 2015;Serrano & De la Herrán, 2018). A reality that goes beyond the structure of services to people created in welfare states and that requires different organizational and professional practices than those applied to date.

The educational institution must be seen by the family, as a means to achieve the highest synthesis of educational values through organized knowledge, systematically directed as an intellectual and affective process for the formation of the individual and oriented according to daily life. The articulation of all this work must be achieved in the life and daily functioning of the school as an institution that is part of the social environment in each community. (Bolívar, 2006;Consejo Escolar del Estado, 2014)

There are experiences that show that when there is a relationship between family-educational institution and there is a family participation in the educational institution, both facts are fundamental in: improving the academic performance of students; greater self-esteem in children; positive attitudes and behaviors are developed and the quality of parent-child interpersonal relationships is also improved; positive attitudes towards school are generated; and the center improves its educational quality . (Flecha, García, Gómez, & Latorre, 2009;Navaridas & Raya, 2012);(Córdoba, Gómez, & Verdugo, 2008)

There are variables that help or hinder participation such as, among others: policies, family beliefs, teachers `beliefs, teachers' perception (about families, education and educational institution), programs, culture, leadership, interest, social factors, communication barriers or negative experiences. All of them must be kept in mind in the proposals of participation, collaboration and involvement of parents in the life of the center. We must not forget that parents must be primarily responsible for the education of their children and take into account the value of families in the institutional context.

In order for family participation to be effective, and achieve the desired success, all agents must exchange information and insights. This implies renewing the type of relationship so frequent: teachers "recommend" and families obey or ignore.

The parents have a series of rights that the centers must satisfy, and the teachers must have in their hand, as professionals, the solutions and the actions is on how to educate their children. In addition, they should keep in mind that the involvement of families in the centers entails greater control, greater demand and rules of action. For these reasons, the school-parent binomial must work in greater collaboration and participate jointly. The institution has the educational task and the family must be an agent of help and change, since they are directly responsible for their children.

In order to achieve a quality education and train-committed citizens, the participation of teachers, students, families and community is necessary. The legislation at international level maintains that attending to the special educational needs of those students who present them, from the prism of inclusive education, is an obligation of the entire educational community, being the active participation of parents essential throughout the entire process of detection, identification, evaluation and educational response.

In Cuba, education is inclusive by nature. It is guaranteed from government policy, attention to all children without distinction, beginning in early childhood, and extended to other areas, as they are culture and sport.Borges, Leyva, Zurita, Demósthene, Ortega and Cobas, (2016)

Likewise, we agree withBorges & Orosco (2012)when they define educational inclusion as:

"The one that do not impose requirements for enrollment or selection mechanisms or discrimination of any kind, to really implement the rights to education, equal opportunities and social participation of all and adapts to the needs of development all girls, boys and teenagers and young people". (p. 45)

This implies that a meeting space must be built, a school for everyone and from everyone, where common values are reinforced through trust in the family and education, where shared responsibility, collaboration and cooperation prevail respecting the right to everybody.

Moving towards an inclusive school, necessarily leads us to increase the participation and collaboration of all members of the educational community and of the different administrations, each contributing the best of themselves: collaboration, commitment, respect, resources, support, information and training.Gayle, (2014)

It is up to the state to adopt the appropriate measures so that the parents of the students who require different educational attention than the ordinary, receive the appropriate advice, as well as the necessary information to help them in the education of their children.

The joint work of teachers, managers, officials and researchers has allowed testing in these centers the proposal of a curriculum with a more comprehensive, flexible, contextualized character, which means granting real participation to all those involved, making the necessary adjustments to the conditions specific and diverse in each context, and achieve a more personalized and empowering inclusive approach to the development of each student. (Hernández, 2015;Terre, 2014;Arnaiz, Escarbajal, & Caballero, 2017)

The data provided by different studies, demand to the public administrations a greater initiative and support in the processes of inclusion (Verdugo & Rodríguez, 2008;Verdugo & Rodríguez, 2012)because it is usual to find barriers that prevent progress in the inclusive processes together with families and committed professionals.

Thus, it would be appropriate for legal regulations to establish indicators that contribute to detect and intervene in the needs of students, ensuring the participation of parents. These indicators should guide the participation of family and other non-specialist professionals in the attention to diversity, making the participation of the entire educational community more effective.

To think we have made some questions to guide people in charge of promoting family involvement depending on the socio - educational inclusion of children and children with special educational needs associated with disability from work performed byRivas & Ugarte (2014);Calvo, Executioner and Love (2016).

In the first place, to the family, for being in charge of the educational function:

Does the family of children with special educational needs associated with disability know what socio-educational inclusion is? Does the family prepare their children with special educational needs associated with disability for socio-educational inclusion? How? How is the relationship with the families of your child's group?

To teachers

The educators of the institutions to fulfill their guiding function and support families for the socio-educational inclusion of their children, must plan actions that raise their culture for coexistence; provoke reflection and search for solutions to problems, and teach them to discover the potential of children. They affect both the teaching-learning process of the students and their preparation for their future work and social life.

How is the relationship with the child's family with special educational needs associated with disability? What role have you played in the relationship between the families of the group?


Do you know the characteristics of the families of children with special educational needs associated with disability? Do families participate in the activity of the educational institution? What does the school do with these families?

Below we offer a set of elements that we have called keys to success, with them we intend to ensure that family participation has the expected result and that the socio-educational inclusion of children with special educational needs associated with a disability is the most satisfactory.

The keys to success point to three dimensions that have an integrative character and that favor the process of socio educational inclusion, we refer to the knowledge dimension, attitudes dimension and involvement dimension, and which are elements that are implicit in the definition of educational inclusion addressed above.

After an exhaustive analysis of the concepts knowledge, attitudes and implication, we assume that the knowledge dimension is related to information about an object or phenomenon of the world, and the relationships established by the subject with them, these will allow you to make a reasoning, make decisions and subsequently transmit it, value them and expand their integral culture on all that surrounds us.

Keys to success

  • Be aware of all laws, regulations, decrees that legally protect you and can make use and defense of your rights. (Documents such as the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, Family Code and others)

  • Knowledge of the disability and everything related to it, in order to identify the potentialities, abilities, abilities of their children.

  • Know what educational inclusion is and the benefits it brings to your child.

  • Knowledge of the characteristics of the community to take advantage of the resources and services it provides (Diagnostic and orientation center, special schools, consultations of defectologists in polyclinics, associations of the disabled, among others.)

  • Receive guidance related to the general education curriculum and the adaptations that your child requires, to generalize learning in all contexts.

  • Knowledge of emotional resources to face both positive and negative reactions to the socio-educational inclusion of your child.

Regarding the dimension of attitudes, we agree withLeyva, (2015)when he states that they are psychological processes, which arise in the development of human activity, constitute the premises for the realization of subsequent activities and have the property of being reflected in the behavior of the individual, orient, regulate and guide him in a certain sense.

In addition, it states that in order to achieve the social inclusion of children with special educational needs, it is necessary to take into account the attitude of their peers and the people around them, the social and institutional environment where they develop is also important. Consequently, the modification of those inappropriate attitudes that hinder the incorporation of these people into society with equal rights and opportunities must be planned.Leyva, (2015)

Keys to success

  • Willingness to know, act and transform the reality in which your child develops.

  • Good coordination relationships with the educational institution, result in children increasing the motivation towards learning.

  • Respect for diversity, both of the family and children, must be present as a value and principle of action.

  • The active and positive relationship between all the agents involved in the educational process.

To design between family and teachers, what is best for the child, and education among all determine what you want and where to direct actions,

  • The family and the school have different but complementary roles aimed at a common goal.

  • Elimination of discriminatory practices in all contexts.

The implication dimension, we have defined as active participation in a fact, which can have an impact on the actual performance of the activities where the individuals intervene and are offered solutions to the barriers, difficulties or needs that arise.

Keys to success

  • Offer spaces to exchange experiences between families themselves and between families and teachers.

  • Give him the opportunity for the family to participate in the planning of the activities of the Family Education Schools and of Day Care Centers (how, when and where).

  • Allow the family to evaluate each activity where they participate and suggest.

  • Stimulate and disseminate the achievements of families in the institution.

  • The involvement also depends on the educational centers, so that from the educational institutions parents have to be involved, so that they feel part of the educational process, encouraging their active participation.


As previously seen, the participation of families in the education of their children has gone through different periods, from non-participation or timely participation to their active involvement. This has been possible thanks to the advances that have taken place in the educational centers both at the level of management and organization, as well as at the change of attitude of those involved. Currently, schools seek to develop new ways of doing and being to respond to the challenges of inclusive education. We have models, tools and strategies that favor education for all, with positive experiences and with beneficial and effective results.

Changes occur when participation and commitment belong to everyone and everyone feels an important part in the process, in which each one contributes according to their abilities, competences and functions. In this process of transformation, it should not be forgotten that the family is a living resource that needs to feel welcomed, taken into account and that is part of the education of their children.

The family is essential at all times of the process. An aspect that favors the coexistence between school and family is a center open to the community, where collaboration predominates. Effective functioning, therefore, requires the participation of all members of the school community.

There is still work to be done in an education for all but this will no longer be an entelechy, but a reality where the family, among other agents, plays a key role: family participation is an essential requirement for an inclusive school as part of Innovation and educational quality. Develop inclusive policies, create inclusive cultures and develop inclusive practices, expanding the lines of research, evaluating participation and family-school relationships to determine their impact on learning, involvement and participation in the community.

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Received: April 09, 2019; Accepted: July 22, 2019

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