SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

 
vol.18 número4Habilidades cognitivas y estrategia de interacción didáctica: una posibilidad a través de las preguntas formuladas en clasesEl diagnóstico de la comprensión de problemas aritméticos en la educación primaria índice de autoresíndice de materiabúsqueda de artículos
Home Pagelista alfabética de revistas  

Servicios Personalizados

Revista

Articulo

Indicadores

  • No hay articulos citadosCitado por SciELO

Links relacionados

  • No hay articulos similaresSimilares en SciELO

Compartir


Mendive. Revista de Educación

versión On-line ISSN 1815-7696

Rev. Mendive vol.18 no.4 Pinar del Río oct.-dic. 2020  Epub 02-Dic-2020

 

Original article

Characteristics of the teaching-learning process from the pedagogical training of Nursing students

Madelaime Ramos Vives1  * 
http://orcid.org/0000-0003-4247-1524

Belkis Ferro González2 
http://orcid.org/0000-0002-3042-4723

Juan Alberto Mena Lorenzo2 
http://orcid.org/0000-0003-3695-9451

1 Universidad de Ciencias Médicas de Pinar del Río. Cuba

2 Universidad de Pinar del Río “Hermanos Saíz Montes de Oca”. Cuba

ABSTRACT

At present, the pedagogical training of the undergraduate student in Nursing needs to influence the modeling of a researcher nurse, an agent of change for himself, others and the surrounding community. In this sense, the objective of this article has been: to characterize the pedagogical training process of undergraduate students in Nursing at the Faculty of Medical Sciences "Dr. Ernesto Che Guevara de la Serna". The materialist dialectical approach and other methods of the theoretical level (logical historical, inductive-deductive, modeling, synthetic analytic, documentary analysis), of the empirical level (documentary review, observation, surveys, interviews) were used as a general method, to delimit the essences of the object and organize the research results. Theoretical, historical and conceptual aspects of pedagogical training were systematized, whose process was defined and operationalized from two dimensions, starting points for the elaboration of empirical instruments, their strengths and weaknesses in the study context were specified and the main scientific ideas that structure the proposed conception. The theoretical and practical characterization of the object reflects meeting points between the sensorial-perceptual study, the systematization carried out and the diagnosis in the context of analysis, confirming the need for its transformation, which is complemented by the integration of the diagnostic results, by specifying their strengths and weaknesses. It is stated that the dimensions of the analyzed variable, in their current state, present affected aspects, understood as challenges that deserve to be addressed by the methodological work of the career and year groups.

Keywords: pedagogical training process; teaching learning process; mode of educate action; degree in nursing

Introduction

Training, for the nursing student achieves learn caring and learning about professional discipline is a responsibility of the teacher, what make possible to find their presence, their nature and complexity and becomes a support for opening their thoughts in the search for solutions to professional problems by creating their own knowledge and practices (Tejada, Ramírez, Díaz, Huyhua, 2019).

Scientists results of some research, emphasize on prospects for training and humanist character that identifies, to considering the needs and characteristics of the context in which a health professional develops its activity, integrating in it transversal contents to solve professional problems(Hernández, Ferro, 2015), multidisciplinary activities aimed at improving the care process performed by the nurse(Cordero, Ferro, Garcia and Dominguez, 2019), the emerging pedagogical and methodological training of teachers to ensure the quality the training process in Health.

In general, the professional training process in all areas of knowledge in health sciences has meeting points in the need to prepare graduates for the performance of their functions in the fields of health promotion, disease prevention, rehabilitation of health, in the administration of material and human resources, in scientific research and in teaching; all of which is mediated by the educational act.

In particular Nursing career finds in the budgets referred to the continuous challenges efforts to design strategies for preparation of human resources, integrating positive experiences from different schools and theories with educational holistic approach and allow to understand and intervene in the solution of professional problems of nursing care and self - care of the person, the family and the community.

In this sense, it is projected towards the development of teaching skills during vocational training through an interpersonal affective communication, fluent in the process of teaching and learning and where the modes of action lead to social interaction harmoniously, inclusive and respecting diversity; aspects in which methodological work of the collectives of career and year settle (Ferro and Afre, 2017).

Given that to the Bachelor of Nursing corresponds educative intervention on the subject of work, to influence the development of healthy living styles through self - care, should learn and know consciously and systematically to transmit, interpret and transform the educational act, which satisfy social and human needs in the context of its formation(Cordero, Ferro, García and Domínguez, 2019).

In this order of ideas, training constitutes one of the essential pedagogical categories; The concept is valued as part of the educational process schooled or pedagogical process, materialized in the dialectical unity: instruction- education, which in the nursing career distinguishes five essential conceps: didactic process of teaching and learning, of care, role of the teacher, the pedagogical relationship and professional competences(Rojas, Rivera and Morera, 2018).

Being consistent with these postulates, pedagogical training in its generality requires a holistic view to understand the interaction of the components of the educational act, as a logical sequence of that training, either in the classroom context of the school or in other contexts in which the pedagogical process can also take place.

The pedagogical work of the Bachelor of Nursing at present is so complex that it requires the professional permanent improvement to solve deficiencies that the graduate has in their care and social performance and in the relationship with the environment of their professional activity and for the domain of teaching strategies that facilitate the transformation of pedagogical practice in the care relationship, attitudes achieved when the teacher has opening, rescues the importance of life and generates therefore sensitivity and humanity (Tejada Ramirez Diaz and Huyhua, 2019).

The criteria of these authors coincide in that a pedagogical training program in Nursing must introduce contents that transform the aptitudes, attitudes and values, from which they are formed, in order to modify the professional performance mode. This criterion is applicable not only to the school context, but also to any other in which the pedagogical action of the nurse takes place.

In its course, the objective of the pedagogical formation basically associated to appropriation by the student of knowledge, skills, values, skills and attitudes necessary for the exercise of teaching. However, currently this training goes beyond the traditional work of the educator in frontal teaching or classroom context with students; More than that, it takes into account the functions of the nurse in relation to tutorial care for students who carry out pre-professional practices in their area of activity(Rodríguez, 2013, p.45).

Conceiving training as a pedagogical category forces it to be interrelated with teaching and learning, which requires that those who teach be professionally trained to teach those who learn. Studies conducted by Huguet,et al. (2018) and Suárez, Morales & Baute (2019), on pedagogical training for health teachers, reveal the need for preparation to act on education and include performance as part of professional, institutional and social improvement.

Such assumptions find support in nursing as an activity, the practice of which has been developed within the framework of training programs differentiated by basic functions, in different social settings and meeting points in education to provide better care.

The exploratory study to the object reveals the educational role that the nurse performs in health promotion from the Florence Nightingale Preparatory School for Nurses or the personal and professional development and growth proposed by Peplau, as supports of the value of nurse-patient interpersonal relationships in the psychodynamic aspect of care, to the scientific-teaching activity in the exercise of training new professionals, which include the functions of the nurse in health education.

The spontaneity of nursing practice learning characterized its beginnings; much of the nursing knowledge was transmitted through vocational training focused on the skillful execution of functional tasks. In Cuba, the practitioners learned following the model of the trades or imitation of the elementary procedures that were applied; that is, it followed the non-schooling model (Mena, et al., 2019, p. 75) that took place fundamentally in hospitals, where they initially received essential knowledge for learning the profession, a process that was returned in the teaching of new practitioners, registering this as a precedent for education at work.

As for combining individual resources with social and professional ones to provoke a change in the mode of action and direct actions towards a healthy environment in different dimensions, the ideas of Florence Nightingale in The Theory of the Environment are significant, as they contribute aspects of the interpersonal relationship system in the development of intervention strategies for educational purposes.

Nightingale has been the forerunner of the didactic classification of nursing functions by dimensions, the care dimension in nursing care; the teaching dimension in preparing for the exercise of the profession from the training model and the investigative dimension, due to the need for continuous inquiry to improve the professional activity.

The analysis of the literature enabled to recognize and value the relevance of the teaching formation for students of the Bachelor career in nursing, while facilitating to have basic training for reading contexts, the effective management of the training process in general and the process of teaching and learning in particular, the psycho - pedagogical preparation that enables attend cognitive needs in performing professional work through their continuous improvement and for educational activities demanded by the profession and nursing; All of which shows that the development of competences for pedagogical exercise is currently a training need for the career , in response to existing social demands.

In the phenomenological study of the process of teacher training student of Nursing, as well as the recognition of its relevance, also a group of shortcomings were identified related to insufficiencies in the development of the Mode of action Educate (MAE).

In considering the above, a problematic situation is declared in the process of pedagogical training of students of Nursing in the Faculty of Medical Sciences "Dr. Ernesto Che Guevara de la Serna", while there are shortcomings that are manifested in the lack of systematicity for the integration of actions that allow the development of the educating mode of action and an inadequate organization of its components in correspondence with the projection of the curriculum and the methodological work of each discipline and subject, which limits the preparation of teachers for the degree and the year for the identification and analysis of professional problems.

In this situation, a contradiction is observed between the current state of the object that shows limitations in its execution for the development of the educating mode of action and the need to achieve greater articulation between the methodological purpose and the guiding function of the student's preparation in the career, so as to overcome those limitations associated with the pedagogical direction of the process in question. From this contradiction emanates the scientific problem to be solved, how to improve the pedagogical training process of the students of the Bachelor of Nursing career?

Due to the above, the objective of this scientific article has been to characterize the pedagogical training process of the students of the Bachelor of Nursing career at the Faculty of Medical Sciences "Dr. Ernesto Che Guevara de la Serna".

Materials and methods

In conformity with the decision to use as a general methodology materialistic approach - dialectical to obtain reliable information on the actual state of the object it is studied in their relations as a process and articulate the methods of theoretical and empirical levels, with the statistic, In order to present some preliminary results of the research being carried out.

Starting from the phenomenological study of the problem, it began a theoretical and practical analysis of the object. Theoretical methods were used: historical logical modeling, Inductive- deductive, analytic synthetic and document analysis, for the historical and conceptual systematization of the process of teaching career Degree in Nursing, in the international and national contexts, its definition as a variable of research and its operationalization, the elaboration of instruments and its characterization in the study context, based on which three scientific ideas are determined that guide the theoretical - methodological conception of the process.

Similarly, methods as empirical level are used: documentary revision, survey to students and teachers of the career, interviews with management and participant observation, in order to determine strengths and weaknesses that characterize the process, based on which the solution to the identified scientific problem is proposed for its transformation. Finally, the Descriptive statistics for processing data obtained from the application of diagnostic instruments used.

The study was carried out at the Faculty of Medical Sciences "Dr. Ernesto Che Guevara de la Serna" from the University of Medical Sciences of Pinar Del Río, specifically in the Bachelor of Nursing career. We worked with all (24) of the teachers who work directly with the career; of them: seven are instructors, 13 assistants and four auxiliaries. In addition, we worked with all (16) the directors who direct the training of the Bachelor of Nursing. The selected population was completed by the 167 students who made up the brigades from the first to the fifth year of the career, between the years 2018 and 2019.

The investigative inquiry starts from the review of normative documents of the career to know how the pedagogical training of students is approached depending on the mode of action to educate. Subsequently, the survey was applied to teachers of the career to determine the methodological projection of the work with the curricular strategies and its output through disciplines and subjects. With this information, an interview was conducted with the managers to contrast and / or enrich the previous results.

In order to identify the causes that may be causing the results obtained, scientific observation was carried out on 60 teaching activities and 15 methodological activities. Finally, all the students were surveyed with the aim of knowing to what extent they consider having the pedagogical training necessary to assume the educational mode of action once they graduate. In the latter, the phenomenon of information saturation was taken into account, while the high coincidence of the answers among the students in all the years made it possible to decide not to interview the rest in each brigade.

Results

The results of the systematization made from the referent and antecedents theoretical and conceptual analyzed She allowed to identify key features that characterize the teacher training students Nursing, focused on their direct links with the functions of the degree in the teaching activity, comprehensive care of human health and the context, through health education; it is essentially a professional core content.

Based on this, the pedagogical training process for undergraduate Nursing students is defined as: integrative and systemic development of the curricular strategies of the career materialized in the work of the disciplines and subjects, whose transversal axis is the mode of educate action, for the preparation in the teaching function and the orientation to the patient, the family and the community in the learning of self - care, through the prevention and health promotion, at the different levels of health care.

In the same way, and taking into account that pedagogical training is part of the curricular strategies established by the MES for all university careers and that in a particular way in the MINSAP it also becomes a strategy for the exercise of the profession expressed in interpersonal communication and pedagogical training, the essential character of the MAE is based on this process, as it constitutes a mediating instrument for the teaching performance in the classroom, in education at work and in the orientation to provide nursing care to the person, the family and the healthy, at risk and / or sick community , in reciprocal relationship with their natural and social environment, based on human health needs and their satisfaction through the application of the Nursing Care Process, extended to the family and the community.

The operability of the variable process of pedagogical formation of the student of nursing degree allowed the identification of two conceptual matrices that typify it; On one hand, the methodological projection of the work with the curricular strategies and the disciplines of the career and on the other, the preparation of the students in the contents that make up the pedagogical training in its interrelation with the MAE.

As a result of the study there were, elaborated further empirical instruments based on identification of 11 indicators key that allowed the processing of the data obtained. Subsequently, triangulation results of the application of the referred instruments, integrating quantitative and qualitative data to minimize potential weaknesses in the methods and insecurity to certain results.

The analysis of the dimension methodology projection of work with the curriculum strategy interpersonal communication and pedagogical training of Bachelor nursing career in the opinion of 100% (24) of teachers evidence insufficient activities related to the model of the professional and the modes of action that define it, as limiting the knowledge of the content of the pedagogical formation of the nurse, as the 62.5 % (15) of them and 37.5 % (9) the own activities related to the process of teaching and learning.

It is deduced from these results and from the opinion of all the interviewees, the insufficient participation of the main integrating discipline to give way to pedagogical training, in which they do not find relationships with the MAE , aspects that are confirmed in 100 % (15) of the observed methodological activities, as only 13 % (8) takes into account communication, promotion and health education the 26.6 % (4) of which provides elements of the teaching-learning for training, which happens spontaneously from the expertise of the teachers.

Similarly, all teachers and principals (16) declare the absence of actions of capacitating teachers in coping strategies and methodological work to contribute to the educational training of students, which had an impact on the shortcomings you clarified above.

The teachers reiterate the elements that characterize the MAE; the 37.5 % (9) refer generally to teaching classes and health education, demonstrating lack of mastery of the content of teacher education and the consequences of their interrelation with the educate performance, which 75 % (12) of them coincide.

Only 8 % (two) teachers of the subjects Process teaching learning and Fundamentals of communication and learning, are important to the integration of teacher education in the curriculum strategies of their discipline, considering that nurses must be prepared to teach, as well as provide care to patients, families and community members through health education; which corresponds to four of the teaching activities observed (7 %).

Regarding to dimension preparation of students in contents included teacher training, the 92% (22) of teaching states that students do not show control of the contents included teacher training, coinciding with 100 % (16) of managers; Only two teachers (8 %) state that they acquire knowledge in the subject process of teaching-learning (4toyear), as this prepares them to teach, coinciding these responses with those of students in the 91 % (86) refer not to know these contents. Only eight (9 %) argue that enables them to learn to teach, corroborating in educational activities observed only in two (3 %) and corresponding with the subjects Fundamentals of communication and learning and the process learning and teaching; some students show mastery of these contents, in the rest they do not.

Both in the interviews with teachers and directors and in the activities observed, it is agreed that most of the students are not motivated by these contents; being corroborated in the students' responses, an affectation that may be a logical response to the shortcomings determined in the previous dimension.

More than 50 % (13) of teachers and 81 % (13) of managers consider that the contents related to pedagogical training when teaching are applicable during the performance of the professional activity of the nurse. As can be seen, there is no recognition of the educational aspect of the promotion, prevention, recovery, rehabilitation of healthy or sick people and the orientation of families and the community at different levels of health care, as part of pedagogical training and its interrelation with the MAE.

In general, from the results of the applied instruments, it is also perceived a lack of interest and motivation in the students, given by the few activities related to pedagogical training that are carried out in classes.

In this order of ideas, the presence of the MAE in the Professional Model and the inclusion of the curricular strategy Interpersonal communication and pedagogical training, the Teaching Process discipline, are delimited as strengths of the pedagogical training process of nursing students and subjects Basics of communication and learning and the teaching learning process in the curriculum of the career.

In that sense, they identify as their main limitations the following:

The pedagogical training process:

  • It projects the exit to pedagogical training only through the subjects that make up the discipline Teaching-learning process and based on classroom teaching activities, which affects the reductionist criteria of teachers about their functions in the career.

  • It does not delimit its components and relationships with the MAE, affecting teachers' knowledge about their development in the career.

  • It does not promote a sufficient level of integration, systematization and coordination in the interdisciplinary work of the pedagogical, career, year and discipline groups, in order to achieve the necessary educational influences that coherently output its structural components.

  • It does not develop sufficient knowledge about the MAE, its components and functions in the solution of professional problems, which influences the lack of interest and motivation of students for their pedagogical training.

  • Lacks of theoretical-methodological projection in the career, to give way to the pedagogical training of the students as a response to the training of the MAE in Nursing.

Based on the theoretical and empirical study, there are revealed three scientific ideas of conception: the process of teacher training student Degree in Nursing during initial training is based on the MAE as an catalyst agent for the vocational training process; the pedagogical training of the Degree of Nursing student is systematized and integrated from the curricular point of view based on the triadic relationship of Interpersonal Communication Strategy and Pedagogical Training - Main integrating discipline -other disciplines of the career, whose articulating element is the MAE and the collective of the year the instrument for its organization; and the pedagogical training process of students of Nursing during initial training from the curriculum is developed taking into stages.

Discussion

The theoretical systematization carried out, by virtue of the analysis of the literature on the subject, leads the authors to recognize the current importance of the educational nature of the training of the nurse, as it means the development of competencies to act in an integrated and flexible curriculum, based on the understanding and sequential use of the principles related to professional education.

This training implies challenges for the teacher in the Degree of Nursing career, first of all, by having to find himself and by the need to possess theoretical, conceptual, didactic, psycho pedagogical and methodological tools that allow him to know in depth the environment and the ones that forms and masters the field of specific knowledge to carry out his function as an educator and have elements that allow him to deepen them, apply them and be constantly updated.

Education, as an implicit attribute that identifies the nursing profession, tends to design innovative health education strategies in response to the care needs of the population; but to be able to teach the other how and what care is, requires knowledge and pedagogical skills. That is why this discipline is nourished by Pedagogy for the training of competent nurses, as it is recognized as the basis of the progress of the profession in which management skills of the work environment itself must be developed, so that it is visible and acquires the social recognition it deserves(Rojas, Rivera, Luz, & Morera, 2018).

In this order of ideas, the educate action emerges as a renovating element of professional practice that needs preparation to learn it, learn it and teach how to execute it based on a set of principles and commitments aimed at obtaining better results in health and greater autonomy by creating relationships characterized by integration, ethical practice, social justice and teamwork.

This implies that the training process of the Degree of Nursing develops in an autonomous way in the responsibility to integrate the collective teacher education in a common approach, discussing the needs of learners and the skills they need for creating an environment of cooperation in organizing to practice and act productively in their ties to the profession.

Regarding the preparation for the exercise of the function teacher of the nurse, the above analysis allows to assume that the development of teaching skills during the formation of the nurse becomes a new dimension that deepens from the interpersonal, ethical and humanizing relationships, having as an articulating element the mode of action Educate.

According determinations in Cuba, of the National Ministry of Health, the formation of the mode of action Educate, enables a student to develop the teaching-learning process in the formation of another human resources, personal related, in activities of education for health to individuals, families and the community, once graduated, which means instructing in the essences of the profession and educating for its execution in the relationship with work objects.

It is to say, the student of Nursing is shaped as an educator in the wide sense of the word, while this category is present in all its spheres of action; therefore, educating transverses other modes of professional performance and needs trained capacities in students favoring their development in the process of teaching and learning.

There are several studies on the functions of the teaching-learning process that show the need for transformations in its projections; In general, they coincide in considering poor progress in generalization processes that facilitate the conscious appropriation of the notions, concepts, laws, judgments that have to be learned and applied in new teaching tasks, together with other features where the tendency to an absent execution of Valuation actions with the content that is interacted with.

In the Nursing career, the functions related to the teaching-learning process are oriented towards the direction of the teaching-learning process; tutoring and incidental teaching in the workplace; training for health brigades and community volunteer groups; the development of training activities with the students located in their service, which constitute components of the curricular strategy Interpersonal Communication and pedagogical training.

Bringing an approach of these functions to positions from the didactics is the challenge that is assumed today by different specialists in the field of teaching. The aim is to develop the necessary theory that allows the career teacher to feel sufficiently oriented to understand and organize the conduct of this process, focused on teaching and learning the mode of action those transverses the practical activity of the nursing, the mode of action Educate.

In this way, it has been established in previous studies that the pedagogical training of the Degree Nursing student has a specific character in the teaching-learning process, which is considered essential given the educational work that it develops; Therefore, it is significant, not only the conscious didactic act, but also the learning in the mastery and assimilation of the components of this process that, from this perspective, contributes to promoting the development of the National Health System, by influencing the formation of modes of professional performance in Nursing in the strengthening of teaching, managerial, healthcare and research activities.

The foregoing represents the use of the student's pedagogical training process as a mediator of change in practice and the development of the epistemological basis of Nursing as a science, which implies acquiring tools to face the challenges of today's world deepen and solve problems of the profession.

In this order of ideas, the teaching-learning process in the pedagogical formation of the student, has as an essential function, dimensioning its educational character in the educational processes of the areas of its competence that contribute to the identification and solution of the problems of health through a systemic and contemporary perspective that impacts their competence and research performance and favors the application of the Nursing Care Process with the levels of scientific and technical development that is needed.

Taking as a base the stimulation of active, self - regulated and independent learning, and the development of critical, scientific and creative thinking in solving current problems of education, it is incorporated the importance of the provision of professional to enrich the body of knowledge of the discipline, with proposals that are validated in professional practice solving pressing problems related to the purpose of the profession: the care and preparation to join work in the satisfaction of the social needs demanded by the current Cuban society of the Nursing professional.

Directing the teaching-learning process according to current pedagogical requirements, privileging as a didactic resource the logic of the Nursing Care Process as a method of professional performance, then requires the active participation of teachers and subjects, including the main integrating discipline, articulated all by the mode of action Educate.

The development of a student-centered teaching- learning process, establishing spaces for debate, dialogue, criticism, questioning and the search for information, taking into account its systemic approach and on the basis of theoretical foundations and methodological of Pedagogy and Psychology, in correspondence with the curriculum strategy and the latest trends in the education system in Cuba, is the core of the actions of teacher training for education performance mode.

In this sense, the objectives of each of the curricular strategies of the career highlight the value of the educating mode of action, although it is not yet understood as intrinsic components of the refereed mode of action(Velázquez, R. & Gamboa, 2017), which reflects the need to consciously deepen their mutual interconnections and interdependencies within the framework of the pedagogical training process of the Degree of Nursing student.

In the opinion of López (2017), it involves the career, year and discipline groups and the preparation of integrative objectives per academic year to develop the teaching-learning process in the training of professional, related personnel and in educational activities of education for health of people, families and the community, which defines necessary transformations in relation to the way of acting to educate from the training program.

Some of these transformations lead to the constant search for a higher level of concretion and encounters between the functions of the educating mode of action, the multi and interdisciplinary participation in the web of curricular strategies designed to strengthen the socio- humanistic and ethical training of professional work and the increase in the harmonious correspondence of pedagogical training with the training of professional skills.

In order to achieve such connections, the main integrating discipline, Nursing, has incorporated into its programs some elements that originate in the work of the year groups, as a particular way of developing the teaching-learning process with a highly coordinated directionality that responds to the exit profile of the profession in which the didactic components are increasingly interwoven, which allows to achieve a greater systematicity and applicability of the educational aspects of vocational training in the course of the career.

So, in the work for the pedagogical training of the students of the Nursing Degree, in function of forming the Educate mode of action, all the curricular strategies of the career are responsible. This work must be inclusive, systemic, interdisciplinary and intentional. All the activities that make up the training process must contribute to the training of the Educate mode of action.

It is necessary to point out that only with the work of the discipline directly related to pedagogical training is not possible to achieve the preparation of the students. The curricular strategy Inter- personal communication and pedagogical training must materialize, first of all, in the Main Integrative Discipline of Nursing, as an exponent of the object of the profession; first modifying their own didactic-methodological conception according to the aforementioned mode of action and, based on this, assemble the rest of the disciplines, subjects and teachers of the career and the year to guide, adapt and enhance the actions that contribute to it.

So, the pedagogical formation was projected to directly affect the multifaceted development of the active, reflexive nurse; to make judgments, make decisions, define the objectives and everything that the teaching process entails; planning its activity according to different alternatives of action, taking into account the context and its possibilities of application.

As it is said above it is based on the last goals of the strategy interpersonal communication and pedagogical training: training of the way of educating action to what it is necessary to prepare students as a teacher in the classroom, in education at work and as educators in the orientation to provide nursing care to the healthy, at risk and / or sick person, family and community, in reciprocal relationship with their natural and social environment.

The integration of these three directions of teacher education will have valuable influence on the student, only if it is conceived from the very projection of the career to its particular link: the subject and the class, in there lies the functional and educational perspective of the process of teaching and learning.

In general, the theoretical configurations for the pedagogical training process of the students of the Degree in Nursing career are delimited from basic educational influences to develop the pedagogical activity within the framework of the performance of the profession, in budgets of the different Nursing schools that support the training functions of curricular strategies, methodological work and the class system of the different disciplines, in addition to theoretical- conceptual, methodological- instrumental and relational tools typical of pedagogical training in the career.

In response to their general characteristics, functions and perspectives described, the definition of the construct process of pedagogical training of students of Nursing identifies two core concepts. On the one hand, the methodological projection of the work with the curricular strategies and the disciplines of the career, referred to the way in which the methodological work of the career is conceived based on the work with the curricular strategies and the disciplines; part of the preparation that teachers have to direct the process from their subjects. On the other hand, the preparation of students in the contents that makes up the pedagogical training in their interrelation with the identified way of educating actions, taken as a premise those who assume students about the process of teaching and learning and education activities for health, during his professional training as a Degree of Nursing.

Referencias bibliográficas

Cordero Cabrera, M., Ferro González, B., García Veloz, M. & Domínguez Álvarez, J. (2019). Cuidado informal al adulto mayor encamado en un área de salud. Revista de Ciencias Médicas de Pinar del Río. 23(2), 195-205. Recuperado en 09/09/2020, de Recuperado en 09/09/2020, de http://scielo.sld.cu/scielo.php? Script=sci_arttext&pid=S1561.31942019000200195&Ing=es&ting=es . [ Links ]

Ferro González, B., Afre Socorro, A. (2017). El trabajo metodológico en la implementación de la disciplina Estomatología General Integral. Revista de Ciencias Médicas de Pinar del Río , 21(1), 89-100. Recuperado en 09/09/2020, de Recuperado en 09/09/2020, de http://scielo.sld.cu/scielo.php? Script=sci_arttext&pid=S1561.3194201700010014&Ing=es&ting=es . [ Links ]

Hernández Rodríguez, I.M., Ferro González, B. (2015). Formación Humanista y modo de actuación del médico. Estrategia para su integración. Revista de Ciencias Médicas de Pinar del Río , 19(3), 491-508. Recuperado en 09/09/2020, de Recuperado en 09/09/2020, de http://scielo.sld.cu/scielo.php?Script=sci_arttext&pid=S1561.3194201500030012&Ing=es&ting=es . [ Links ]

Huguet Blanco, Y., Quintana Gómez, F., Franco Pérez, P.M. & Sosa Fleites, I.M. (2018). Preparación de profesores en ciencias médicas: una visión desde las páginas de EDUMECENTRO. EDUMECENTRO 10(3), 174-193.Recuperado 09/09/2020, de Recuperado 09/09/2020, de http://scielo.sld.cu/scielo.php? Script=sci_arttext&pid=2077. 28742018000300012&Ing=es&ting=es . [ Links ]

López, N. (2017). ¿Cómo plantear estrategias curriculares integrales e interdisciplinarias? Colombia: Editorial McLaren. [ Links ]

Mena, J. A, Sarracino, N. y Machado, F. (2019). Historia de la Educación Técnica y profesional en Pinar del Río. Primera parte. Pinar del Río, Cuba: Ediciones Loinaz. [ Links ]

Rodríguez López, M. (2013). Modelo del proceso de formación del profesor tutor para la carrera de Enfermería. [Tesis doctoral]. Universidad de Pinar del Río "Hermanos Saíz Montes de Oca". Pinar del Río, Cuba. [ Links ]

Rojas Reyes, J., Rivera Álvarez, L.N. & Morera Pomares, M.J. (2018). Aspectos pedagógicos en la formación de Enfermería: Revisión integrativa. Investigación y Educación en Enfermería, 36(3), e03. https//dx.doi.org/10.17533/udea.iee.v36n3e03 [ Links ]

Suárez Suárez, G., Morales Calatayud, M. & Baute Álvarez, L. (2019). Modelo de formación pedagógica para profesores de la Universidad metropolitana del Ecuador. Revista Cubana de Medicina Militar. 48(2Sup), 302-315. Recuperado de http:/revmedmilitar.sld.cu/index.php/mil/article/view/385Links ]

Tejada, S, Ramírez, E.J., Díaz R.J., Huyhua, S, C. (2019). Práctica pedagógica en la formación para el cuidado de Enfermería. Revista Enfermería Universitaria. 16(1), 41-51. http://doi.org/10.22201/eneo.23958421e.2019.1.577. [ Links ]

Velázquez Prieto, R.Y. & Gamboa, M. E. (2017). ¿Cómo la clase permite trabajar las estrategias curriculares? En J.C., Arboleda (Ed). Contextualización investigativa en el área de la Cultura Física y el Deporte en Cuba (pp. 308-315) Las Tunas, Cuba: Editorial Redipe-Edacun. http:/hdl.handle.net/123456789/3669Links ]

Received: October 09, 2020; Accepted: October 20, 2020

Creative Commons License Este es un artículo publicado en acceso abierto bajo una licencia Creative Commons