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Mendive. Revista de Educación

versión On-line ISSN 1815-7696

Rev. Mendive vol.18 no.4 Pinar del Río oct.-dic. 2020  Epub 02-Dic-2020


Original article

Perspectives of teachers and students in the definition of inclusive-virtuous schools category

Fernando Santiago Unda Villafuerte1  *

1 Universidad Nacional de Educación. Ecuador


The characterization and definition of the inclusive school variable enables the design of policies, plans, programs, and projects aimed at access, participation and quality education for all children and adolescents. In this framework, the study aimed to operationalize the inclusive education category from the perspective of students and teachers and from the perspective of virtuous educational organizations. It was based on the socio-educational experiences and practices of teachers and students approached from the theory of educational inclusion and the postulates of Positive Psychology. The research was developed in the provinces of Bolívar and Pichincha, north central Ecuador. There was a non-probabilistic sample of 541 students and 98 teachers. It was an explanatory-descriptive qualitative cross-sectional study. As research methods, the documentary review, participant observation and triangulation were considered. The technique used was the survey and, the instrument, a protocol designed to describe qualities of inclusive and exclusive educational organizations, previously validated with the criteria of specialists. The study characterized schools as inclusive when: teachers and students practiced values; respect and appreciation for diversity was promoted; there were communication channels between families and the school; teachers and students made decisions on issues that directly concerned them; psych pedagogical support actions were carried out; and, the aim was to eliminate the barriers that reinforce exclusion. As conclusions, a set of dimensions and indicators were raised that will make it possible to advance in the construction of inclusive and virtuous schools.

Keywords: diversity; inclusive schools; students; teachers; virtuosity


The research carried out considered as a general question: what are the dimensions and indicators that define a school as inclusive and virtuous? To make this possible, the empirical research and theoretical reflections on inclusive education and the contributions of Positive Psychology on virtuous school organizations were observed as a general theoretical framework.

The importance of the study lies in the need to establish criteria to allow the construction of virtuosic inclusive schools in response to the contexts and needs of the social and cultural diversity that characterizes the Ecuador and the region. The research developed acquires relevance to the extent that education professionals, social and educational researchers and the educational community in general have a frame of reference and a set of indicators for decision-making on inclusive education, thought from the emergent perspective of Positive Psychology and its axis of virtuous organizations.

The reflection on inclusive education considers the spaces for discussion and debate generated by the United Nations Office for Education, Science and Culture (UNESCO). From this point of view, some key milestones in the construction of the theory of inclusive education are: World Conference on Education for All, where the operation of the traditional school is questioned and an initial proposal of an education for all; Salamanca Declaration and Framework for Action in 1994, in which education and the valuation of differences as fundamental rights are presented; World Education Forum in Dakar 2000, points out the obligation of states to establish public policies aimed at inclusion, recognizing differences by gender, ethnicity, particular abilities , human mobility condition, living in poverty and extreme poverty, etc ; World Conference on Inclusive Education in 2009, sees the educational community and to school regularly as key to the inclusion of the group of students and Proposed Education, in which poses inclusive education processes, equitable and quality in order to reach universal education by the year 2030. It must be added the general human rights concretized by international conventions such as the universal Declaration of human rights in 1948, the Convention for the rights of Children and Adolescence in 1989 and the Declaration of Rights of Persons with Disabilities in 2006.

More specifically, Article 26 of the Constitution of the Ecuador guarantees the right to education for all and everyone throughout life and states explicitly the responsibility of the State to ensure compliance through fiscal investment and social inclusion. For its part, article 27 establishes the essential characteristics of the Ecuadorian educational model considering equity, inclusion from all diversities, participation and interculturality as elements that address and value the set of differences that characterize the Ecuadorian population. Making this right effective means having access to a quality education under equal opportunities and conditions, elements that define inclusive education.

Booth and Ainscow (2002), theoretical references for the construction of the theory of educational inclusion, pose the need to eliminate barriers to access, participation and quality of education and define a set of indicators that define schools as inclusive. The educational inclusion is based on full respect for all differences and make them favorable opportunity to advance in learning, integral development and participation of the whole childhood and adolescence(Castillo & Bautista-Hill, 2020). From that point of view, inclusive education is viewed as a pedagogical model that educates and enriches itself from difference and diversity. It refers to the generation of educational opportunities that respond to learning needs within the framework of specific historical, social and cultural contexts. It constitutes a means for the construction of personal and social identity; allows to improve the quality of education; contributes to the professional improvement of teachers; it makes it possible to advance towards more just and democratic societies; It is based on a system of values and makes the right to education effective for all(Colmenero, 2015).

The inclusive education placed in the center of the learning process to children and adolescents and to exercise and restoration of their rights; it links the family and the community to the school within the framework of their particular social, structural, political, economic and cultural contexts. It is characterized by respect for all the differences that make up the human being, being they social, cultural, economic, sexual, different capacities, among others. It seeks to meet the needs of all students, giving rise to sustainable learning processes defined through the following dimensions: learning for all (related to equity), meaningful teaching (understood as relevant processes) and lasting learning (from its sustainability throughout lifetime) (Graham, Berman & Bellert, 2018).

The approach developed conceives inclusive education as the set of planned teaching- learning processes in which boys and girls, without distinction of gender, intellectual, physical or sensory-motor capacities, race, condition of human mobility due to displacement, migration or shelter or any other difference, they have the opportunity to get involved and stay in a regular class and learn with their peers based on their specific family, community and specific historical contexts. A fundamental task in the construction of inclusive schools has to do with the identification of barriers that hinder access, permanence, participation and quality and warmth education.

They are understood as barriers to educational inclusion to the physical elements and practices and educational, social, cultural or political processes that impede or limit participation and learning from equity. L a major barrier to ensure the educational The main inclusion is evident in the ideas, beliefs, norms and practices of those who are responsible for managing educational policies and processes ((González-Gil, Matín-Pástor & Poy, 2019). Political barriers give rise to contradictions in the regulations aimed at inclusion; the socio cultural are seen as those that promote classifications (Tags); the educational barriers are related to strategies and methodologies of teaching and learning that increase the gaps for inclusion and physical barriers define the difficulties in access to schools (López Melero, 2011).

As specific skills present in inclusive teachers, the following can be identified: management of inclusive methodologies and resources; learning planning and curricular concretion; management of inclusive education models; assertive communication; creative and innovative thinking; management of information and communication technologies; ability to identify the individual and collective characteristics of the group(Ministerio de Educación, 2019).

Closely related to the training for the exercise of an inclusive teaching, the literature emphasizes the innovation teaching, based on educational research, as a linchpin of inclusive school practices. Innovation is defined as the capacity of teachers to generate alternative proposals and effective solutions that allow the attention of all the diversities in the regular classroom and reduce the incidence of discrimination and exclusion(Aviléset al., 2020). 

For its part, the theory of virtuous school organizations is part of the reflections and research that respond to the postulates of Positive Psychology and its approach to look at the integral development of human beings from their strengths and virtues and, to a lesser extent, from its limitations, deficits or deficiencies. More specifically, the third pillar of Positive Psychology is considered, referring to the right to a full and meaningful life linked to the functioning of positive or virtuous organizations. The other pillars of Positive Psychology are the study of emotions as resources for a pleasant life (first pillar); positive character traits conducive to a committed life (second pillar); and, social ties defined as positive social interactions (fourth pillar)(Seligmanet al., 2005). 

The positive vision of organizations affects their organizational culture and projects individual well-being towards something more transcendent such as the well-being of all the members of the organization. Positive Psychology looks at the school as a positive or virtuous organization and therefore it is interested in its structure, development and operation, it understands the school as a space for socialization and learning that promotes or limits the affective, social and cognitive development of girls, children and adolescents responding to their specific inclusion needs considering their specific social and cultural contexts and close interaction with families and with the community(Unda-Villafuerte & Lupano-Perugini, 2019).

From this perspective, when an inclusive school focuses on the strengths of its members, it becomes a positive or virtuous, relevant and quality school organization capable of guaranteeing the well-being, participation and human rights of students; strengthen the capacities of teachers; employ active, collaborative and motivating teaching and learning methodologies; and, generate learning spaces and times that give rise to high levels of happiness(Palomera, 2017).

Empirical research on virtuous schools identifies six fundamental virtues perceived by students and teachers: gratitude (ability to recognize what others do for others); courage (strength to face challenges and difficulties); inspiration (development of quality work); care (concern for the development of its members); forgiveness (overcoming difficulties and proposing alternatives); and meaning (a transcendental mark that the school leaves on its members). These virtues must consider their realization in the social and cultural contexts in which children and adolescents develop(Cameronet al., 2011). 

Within the framework described, the general objective of this work was to identify the dimensions and indicators that make up the inclusive education category from the perspective of students and teachers and under the referential framework of virtuous educational organizations. In this way is it was characterized inclusive schools from the perspective of students and teachers and to define their specific roles in the context of an inclusive school. Having dimensions and indicators that explicitly define the category of inclusive education makes it possible to define actions and interventions that guarantee the right of all children and adolescents to receive a quality education, liberating and without exclusions.

Materials and methods

The study that is shared considered a qualitative approach of an explanatory, descriptive and transversal type, based on the field work. As research methods, processes of analysis and synthesis and of induction and deduction from participatory observation, bibliographic review and triangulation of information were considered. The research techniques used were the documentary review, field diaries and the survey. The instruments that facilitated the collection of the information were content and bibliographic cards and a protocol for the collection of referential information prepared in the form of a questionnaire directed at teachers and students.

The inclusive and virtuous schools category considered the grouping of the information obtained around eight dimensions: personal and institutional values (virtues); teacher education and training; curricular planning aimed at eliminating barriers; participatory methodologies; school setting; spaces for practice and sports; Participation of the educational community; and support for learning needs.

In the self- filling protocol, it was requested to mark and describe characteristics that, according to the criteria of the respondents, defined a school as inclusive. Key roles set was also requested for students and teachers in the context of building organizations, based on the inclusion of the group of children and adolescents. The validity of the questionnaire was carried out considering the criteria of education specialists and its application in the pilot modality in a focus group, with the same characteristics of the chosen sample; while the reliability of the results considered the calculation of Cronbach's alpha, obtaining a value of .72, defined as moderate-high. The information was handled with confidentiality criteria from ethics and veracity. As a preliminary step, the prior and informed consent of the participants was obtained for the use of the information obtained for scientific research purposes.

After debugging the protocols and selecting those that were properly filled out, a non-probabilistic sample of 639 people was used, of which 541 were students (50.47 % women) and 98 teachers (50 % women). The average age of the sample was 28 years and 4 months. The participants in the study did it voluntarily and without receiving any incentives; the main requirement was to be a student or teacher at the high school level. The protocol was answered in an average time of 15 minutes.

The data were processed and analyzed using the statistical support program SPSS 24.0 and frequency tables constructed with the help of the commercial Microsoft Excel program. The bibliographic information was systematized in organizers and diagrams that facilitate its triangulation. The analysis considered the breakdown by gender of information, considering the needs and specific characteristics of women and men.


The generated responses from students and teachers were grouped according to their similarities and explanatory descriptions, as shown intable 1to give an overview of the characteristics of an inclusive and virtuous school.

Table 1 - Key elementsin a inclusive school and virtuous 

Categories Frequency Percentage
Inclusive institutional values (virtuosity) 333 17.37
Professional and trained teachers 276 14.40
School- family linkage 258 13.46
Inclusive infrastructure 231 12.05
Artistic and sports activities 201 10.49
Innovative pedagogical methodologies 186 9.70
Contextualized and quality education 182 9.49
Participation in decision-making 154 8.03
Educational supports for the inclusion of diversity 96 5.01

In general terms, according to the results obtained, inclusive and virtuous schools can be defined as those educational organizations built from the practice of individual values and institutional virtues (virtuosity), in which teachers, students and families make efforts to access and permanence of all diversities in the classroom, considering individual and social strengths and the elimination of barriers that prevent participation and contextualized and quality learning.

Tables 2 and 3can be observed answers obtained, considering the gender of the participants (women, men) and the specific role at processes of teaching and learning (teachers and students). The dimensions presented were grouped considering similar responses and response trends identified in the study developed.

Table 2 - Characterization of inclusive schools according to the sex of the participants  

Categories Women mens
Frequency Percentage Frequency Percentage
Inclusive institutional values 184 19.01 126 13.28
Participation in decision-making 138 14.26 141 14.86
Professional and trained teachers 131 13.53 176 18.55
Artistic and sports activities 116 11.98 58 6.11
Innovative pedagogical methodologies 98 10.12 84 8.85
Inclusive infrastructure 87 8.99 114 12.01
School- family linkage 80 8.26 102 10.75
Contextualized and quality education 69 7.13 98 10.33
Educational supports for the inclusion of diversity 65 6.71 50 5.27

From the information obtained, it is clear that it is very important for women that an inclusive school is based on the practice of values and virtues, including solidarity, respect, integrity, free relationships of sexism and discrimination, gratitude and forgiveness. . For their part, for men it is essential that teachers are professionals trained in teaching practice and participate in decision-making. For both women and men it becomes essential to be taken into account when deciding on important aspects of the school.

Table 3 - Characterization of inclusive schools by students and teachers  

Categories Students Teachers
Frequency Percentage Frequency Percentage
Inclusive institutional values 272 16.76 52 17.69
Professional and trained teachers 242 14.91 3. 4 11.56
Participation in decision-making 213 13.12 48 16.33
Artistic and sports activities 192 11.83 15 5.10
Inclusive infrastructure 159 9.80 26 8.84
Innovative pedagogical methodologies 161 9.92 27 9.18
School- family linkage 140 8.63 27 9.18
Contextualized and quality education 129 7.95 49 16.67
Educational supports for the inclusion of diversity 115 7.09 16 5.44

The data presented show the importance for students of the consistent and daily practice of values in schools defined as inclusive; while for teachers the most important thing has to do with the educational processes being of quality, sustainable and for life.

For teachers, inclusive education focuses on three main elements: the practice of values and institutional virtuosity, quality educational processes and participation in decision-making. For students, the inclusive school, that is, one that enables access for all boys and girls includes professional tutors trained in inclusive practices, an educational community that practices values and school organizations qualified as virtuous, which generate well-being, learning for life and integral development.

When consulting on the specific roles that characterize teachers in the framework of the construction of inclusive schools, the answers obtained were grouped around the following categories: planning and management of teaching- learning, management of active and collaborative learning methodologies, experience of interculturality, development of innovative educational proposals, teamwork, participatory research, and individual and group tutorials. Thetable 4 summarizes the results.

Table 4 - Teaching competencies in the framework of inclusive schools  

Competencies Frequency Percentage
Management of active and collaborative learning methodologies 408 21.28
Planning and management of teaching - learning 354 18.47
Experience of interculturality 289 15.08
Development of innovative educational proposals 261 13.62
Teamwork 247 12.88
participatory -Action research 226 11.79
Individual and group tutorials 132 6.89

Planning educational management at the macro, meso and micro levels, alongside the implementation of methodologies and teaching strategies that facilitate the construction of knowledge by all the students, they were seen as key skills of teachers that build inclusive educational processes. It also stands out the use of teachers in information and communication technologies in the processes of formal and informal learning.

Table 5 summarizes the responses of those who participated in the sample in relation to the roles of students in the context of inclusive schools; these were grouped according to the similarity found.

Table 5 - Student competencies in the framework of inclusive schools  

Competencies Frequency Percentage
Active participation 482 25.14
Peaceful conflict resolution 379 19.77
Values ​​practice among peers and with teachers 316 16.48
Implication in family- school actions 281 14.66
Autonomous Learning 264 13.77
Self-regulation 195 10.17

Highlights the emphasis done to the strengths of students and interaction students - students and students - teachers, based on the practice of values, self - regulation and commitment solve conflicts peacefully.

The following lines are addressed in the specific objectives 1 and 2 of the investigation related to the characteristics assigned by teachers and students to the schools rated as inclusive and roles defined for the teachers and the students in that building. The aforementioned makes sense, since school planning and management and the teaching and learning processes only have meaning in the teacher- student interaction.

Table 6 shows the triangulation process of the results found in the field research and the theoretical elements of inclusive education and virtuosity in school organizations, collected from empirical research. A checklist that shows the dimensions and the proposed indicators presented for to characterize an inclusive virtuous school.

Table 6 - Dimensions and indicators that characterize inclusive schools  

Dimensions Indicators
Interactions based on values , virtues and strengths Personal values Perseverance
Social values Equality
Respect for diversity
Political values Justice
Ethical values Honesty
Love for the truth
Scientific rigor
Organizational virtues (virtuosity) Gratitude
Strengths Wisdom and knowledge
Professional and trained teachers Theoretical and practical management of paradigms, models, theories, approaches and methodologies based on interculturality and diversity
Educational management supported by interculturality
Planning of teaching processes- , from the analysis of barriers to inclusion
Educational innovation based on action research Management of information and communication technologies
Team work
Facilitation of teaching process and professional tutorship
Planning curriculum of the p rocess teaching - learning contextualizad you and quality Pedagogical Model and Institutional Educational Project ; place girls and boys at the center of all learning (macro curriculum)
Curriculum free of stereotypes and discrimination (meso curriculum)
Lesson and lesson plans respond to the learning styles and diversities of the group (micro curriculum)
Universal learning design
Resources to support learning ; respond to the individual and group characteristics and needs of students
Innovative pedagogical methodologies Cooperative learning methodologies and strategies Peer tutoring (student-student)
Mutual aid and support groups
Pedagogical experiences
Guided practices
Formation of learning communities (among teachers)
Investigation groups
Learning circles
Collaborative learning methodologies and strategies Pedagogical couples
Study of cases
Work in corners
Learning based on problems
Individual trials
Collaborative learning
Research- action projects
Group dialogues
- Cooperative/collaborative/ experiential learning assessment techniques Structured foundation tests
Self-assessments, co-assessments and hetero-assessments
Observation sheets
Evaluations based 0n Evidence-
Use of information and communication technologies
Inclusive learning environments Architectural designs free of barriers for inclusion
Safe spaces free from any form of violence
Healthy and ecologically designed environments
Spaces for art and sports Spaces for the development of different artistic expressions
Spaces for sports practice
Artistic and sports activities presented as part of the school curriculum
Participation of the educational community Regulations and agreements that regulate participation
Forms of organization Of girls, boys and adolescents
Of families
Of teachers
Participation spaces For the decision on the management school
For the development of accountability processes
For the development of actions to support the school
For the socialization and celebration of diversity
Educational supports for inclusion Socio cultural diversity
Intellectual discapacidades, motor or sensory
Catastrophic or prolonged diseases
Autism spectrum disorders
Attention to deficit disorders
Difficulties in communication and language
Serious conduct and behavior disorders
Specific learning difficulties in reading, writing and mathematics
High intellectual abilities


The results found in the research observe that when teachers and students are involved in inclusive educational centers, their strengths and virtues increase (amplifying effect) and, at the same time, the impact of negative events is reduced (buffer effect), which gives levels of virtuosity to inclusive schools. From this perspective, alternative views that advocate a school that includes all diversities are developed; This involves: working on policies and regulations that guarantee inclusion, reviewing personal and social practices and attitudes in relation to teaching and learning processes, rethinking methodologies that reproduce traditional and memory education models, rearranging the educational infrastructure - school environment making it relevant to all differences, and redefining the implicit and explicit sociocultural visions that qualify sexism, discrimination, xenophobia and inequitable power relations.

School organizations reflect the diversity of society; therefore, they constitute spaces in which multiple heterogeneities and wide diversities act. The aforementioned constitutes an opportunity to enrich the teaching and learning processes, guaranteeing, from equity and equality, opportunities for all cultures, ethnicities, genders, languages and physical, cognitive and sensory capacities (Durán, 2019).

Inclusive education, from the perspective of Positive Psychology, brings into play a set of values identified by students and teachers as inclusive values and positive virtues. The inclusive institutional values are based on personal, social, political and ethical values; while the institutional virtues translate into gratitude, inspiration, forgiveness and courage. At the same time, values and virtues become strengths of character. The practice of values and virtues in the inclusive school cannot be limited to school contexts, assuming them as daily practices requires inclusive and virtuous families, societies and spaces for socialization.

On the other hand, professionalization, specialization and training continuously are crucial to ensure in the teachers skills for addressing processes of inclusive education. The study provides some clues in relation to inclusive competencies in teaching practice; among these, the domain of the theoretic fundaments of the transformed education, the management and educational planning, the management of teaching processes based on autonomous construction of knowledge and multiculturalism, the innovation supported by research action, the capacity for teamwork, true leadership, the tutorial action and the provision of educational processes are emphasized.

As innovative methodologies and strategies that make inclusive education possible and that have been mentioned in the study, those that emphasize collaborative and cooperative work stand out; the processes of hetero-evaluation, co-evaluation and comprehensive self-evaluation; the specialized approach to the needs of educational support and support in information and communication technologies.

The study defines some basic roles of students in the framework of educational inclusion; These roles make sense with the link of the family in its reinforcement and consolidation and are summarized in participation, the practice of values, the peaceful resolution of conflicts, self-regulation- autonomy and independence, and creativity.

One of the barriers to educational inclusion constitutes participation, understood as a mechanism of listening and voice of diversity and their specific needs and problems (Ochoa Cervantes, 2019). Both students and teachers consider that a key element of participation is being part of decision-making; for this, they propose the need to create different ways of getting involved, ranging from consultation to proposing actions that eliminate barriers that maintain exclusion. In this context, an inclusive school requires stable and democratic forms of organization for students, families, and teachers, spaces for involvement, and a regulatory framework that supports participation.

The research yields three key inputs for understanding the school space in the framework of inclusive education; they consider a friendly infrastructure, violence-free environments and ecologically designed spaces. Likewise, it views artistic and sports activities as essential for participation, learning and inclusion; and therefore, for the integral development in childhood and the adolescence. In this way, inclusive education becomes a holistic and integral process that goes beyond the cognitive vision of the human being and emphasizes their values and their ability to transform reality from creativity.

The inclusive education, under the gaze of virtuosic educational organizations, is configured as a quality education, which meets the needs and requirements of children and adolescents, based on social, cultural and historical contexts of the environment in which implements and the demands of a globalized world that seeks the development of personal and social strengths and virtues. It refers, in addition, both the strategic vision and management education, defined from the macro curriculum as processes of teaching and learning addressed from the meso and micro curriculum. Traditionally, educational quality was related to its relevance, effectiveness, efficiency, relevance and equity; from a human rights perspective, the quality of education is linked to the elimination of barriers, to access, participation and useful learning for life.

The look of a school in which everyone has a place entails designing specific educational supports for the inclusion, adaptation and learning of the set of diversities that starts from the virtues and strengths of its members and, to a lesser extent, from their deficits or shortcomings. From the perspective of inclusive education, the approach to educational support needs, associated or not with disability, has evolved from a focus on special educational needs, which emphasizes the responsibility of education in families, to a social view of rights that establishes the obligation of the State to look at the attention to diversity in the ordinary classroom and from cooperative and interdisciplinary work(Samaniego, 2018).

The research carried out determined different views of women and men regarding the priorities to work to guarantee inclusion in diversity. Thus, for example, it was determined that for women the practice based on values, participation, teacher training and the possibility of developing educational processes from the development of artistic and sports activities are more relevant. For their part, the presence of trained teachers, participation, institutional and personal values, and having an educational infrastructure that eliminates physical barriers to access and school permanence were more relevant for men.

In the same logic, there are differences in the visions and priorities present in the thoughts and imaginations of teachers and students. For the group of teachers, interaction based on values, relevant and quality educational processes, participation in decision-making and continuous training of the teaching team are more relevant. For students, the main priority is to guarantee interactions that consider personal and social values; Added to this, the fact of having specialized teachers in inclusive education, participating in a broad way in life and getting involved in educational processes that consider games, art, recreation and sports as primary strategies in the development of the teaching learning process.

It should be noted that the school is not only a space for the exercise of inclusion and human rights; it is also a social institution that reflects the social and cultural characteristics of society as a whole. Exclusion has structural causes in the political, economic, social and cultural construction of a nation and is related to poverty and extreme poverty. Exclusion and discrimination is not just a school issue, it is present in all institutional and social interaction spaces.

Ecuador still shows alarming levels of child malnutrition, lack of access to health and education services, extreme violence due to gender or sexual choice, high rates of internal and external migration, difficulty in accessing basic services, high levels of illiteracy, among others. The aforementioned is evident in provinces with a high concentration of indigenous population, in rural areas of the subtropics and the coast, and in urban-marginal neighborhoods of the main cities of the country. From this vision, working on inclusion in school entails working on inclusion in the whole of society and tackling the underlying causes of poverty and exclusion.

The research developed generated a checklist aimed at verifying the dimensions and indicators that make up a school as inclusive from the perspective of Ecuadorian teachers and students and the framework of virtuous educational organizations, proposed by Positive Psychology. Likewise, it made it possible to define the characteristics and general roles of teachers and students who, in their actions, intend to build inclusive educational processes. There is a relevant tool to define, from the educational community, policies, plans, programs and projects that allow advancing in the right of all children and adolescents to an education that considers all diversities. In this way, the objective established in the investigation was met.

Among the limitations of the research we can mention: the limited sample to Andean populations, the participation of a small number of teachers and the absence of families in the study. Subsequent research should study in greater depth the different perceptions of inclusive education, related to sociocultural belonging; physical, sensory-perceptual and intellectual capacities; specific learning difficulties; condition of human mobility, among others. That is, in coherence with the results of this preliminary study, seek and consider the voice of all diversities. It is also necessary to deepen empirical readings of educational inclusion from the perspective and contributions of Positive Psychology.

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Received: September 07, 2020; Accepted: October 20, 2020

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