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Mendive. Revista de Educación

versión On-line ISSN 1815-7696

Rev. Mendive vol.18 no.4 Pinar del Río oct.-dic. 2020  Epub 02-Dic-2020


Review article

Colombia and its educational perspective: an approach to socio-critical thinking from the Social Sciences

Javier Grijalba Bolaños1  *

1 Institución Educativa San Carlos. Colombia


The present work proposes a look at education in Colombia and the subject Social Sciences in the national panorama to deepen its qualities as a science and its practice within the Colombian education system. For the analysis of the historical and theoretical references of the object of study, as well as of its current tendencies, the research from which the work is derived, used the historical logical method, direct observation, the method of analysis and synthesis, together with the method of induction and deduction. The research allowed us to approach the problem of how the social sciences can contribute to propitiate scenarios more related to peace for a territory so vulnerable due to themes of conflict and violence; the possibilities that education opens up to glimpse through socio-critical thought a route that can contribute to a well-founded formation that prepares reflexive, critical and conscious subjects of their present, with a view to having the capacity to contribute to the future of the society in which they live. It is shown how from education and by means of the subject Social Sciences it is possible to contribute favorably to the harmonic development in the national panorama.

Keywords: Social sciences; context; education; normativity; thinking; sociocritical


The work proposes to know the context of the problem to later address alternatives that contribute to improving the dynamics that are gestating in the Colombian reality. In the educational field, it is of great importance to take into account the connotations of the territory, therefore, we start from a review of its particularities, to contribute to the clarity of some of the difficulties that arise in education and that authors point out. Barrera, Maldonado, y Rodríguez (2012);García, Espinosa, Jiménez y Parra (2013);Andrade (2016);González Quintero (2016);Arias Gaviria (2017);Castillo, Montoya y Castillo (2018);Osorio (2018)yEchavarría, Vanegas, González Meléndez y Bernal Ospina (2020).

In this way , it is important to mention that there is a great difficulty between what is regulated and what happens in practice, this logic is not separated from the educational field, therefore , it is proposed to reflect on what is happening in the country, in addition to conducting a review based on what is established in official documents, particularly for social sciences(Colombia, 1991;Congreso de la República de Bogotá, 2017; Ministerio de Educación Nacional, 2002,2006,2015,2016;Secretaría Jurídica Distrital de la Alcaldía Mayor de Bogotá D.C., 2015), since it is the subject of interest, from where the analyzes are derived ; It is thus that an approach is made to education in Colombia and its characteristics from a general perspective(OECD, 2016,2019;Unesco, 2010).

It also will try one of the features that have education in Colombia ((Gómez & Velasco, 2017)in contrast to the regulations governing the education system in primary and secondary education, as well as the landscape with science social issues in the country and how it corresponds to some reflections that take place around socio-critical thinking(Alvarado & García, 2008;Lederach, 2000;McLaren, 2005;Molinuevo, 2001;Pérez Esclarín, 2010;Santiago, 2016;Sartre, 2009;Vélez, 2003).

It is necessary to note that, for the purposes of this work, special emphasis is placed on history(Sanchiz, Amores, Agulló, & Navarro, 2019), as one of the disciplines that make up the social sciences and its high relevance with respect to the themes in question, a common thread that allows the object of this work to be energized from its essence, which constitutes the main axis of the research.

In this way, it acquires great importance to find answers to the difficulties that arises in the national context, so the formation of the socio critical thinking it is proposed as an alternative to be worked from the specifities contemplated and which correspond to the reviews conducted from the subject social science. At the same time, the work tries to put into practice the raised socio-critical thinking by presenting reflections of interest to achieve an approach to the educational field of the country.

Analysis of the formation of the socio critic thinking of middle school students in Colombia, from the theoretical and practical level, allows the author of this article to reflect on: How to contribute to the formation of the socio critic thought from the subject Social Science in secondary education students in Colombia? Based on the above, the objective of this work is to carry out a review of the educational panorama and its regulations in relation to the subject Social Sciences and socio-critical thinking.

For the analysis of the historical and theoretical references of the object of study, the research used the logical historical method together with direct observation that confirmed the situation or problem that exists regarding this issue in Colombia. Also, for the study and recapitulation of the state of the art, It was used the method of analysis and synthesis, which allowed the understanding of major trends in the field of research, compiled in the literature, making synthesize the most important features fit the objective of the same in the context under study. Finally, the research method uses induction deduction, which provided essential aspects for the dissertation topic. This method provides theoretical philosophical aspects with subjective and objective character for the pragmatic analysis of reality that occurs in the education sector in Colombia regarding the subject Social Science.


Education in Colombia is permeated by a number of particularities that denote the ineffectiveness of a State, lacking strong solutions to provide the requirements demanded by the quality of the educational system, from which it suffers and is much lower compared to other countries in Colombia. Latin America(Barrera et al., 2012); This quality , which should be counted on from an early age in the training received upon entering educational institutions(OECD, 2016), has historically been linked to religion and its great influence(Ramírez & Téllez, 2007), although This aspect is not discussed, nor can its significance be ignored, "public education, equally and with greater incidence, reproduces the dominant ideology, with its religious ally, from the time of the conquest to the present day"(González Quintero, 2016, p 64).

Even, it is said that Bogotá, the largest city in Colombia and its capital, in addition to concentrating the largest number of inhabitants of the country, provides other features, because their educational establishments offer different levels of quality, which is related with social class, so "a kind of educational apartheid is applied: the rich study with the rich and the poor with the poor"(García Villegas et al., 2013, p. 13). Furthermore, official information from the PISA 2012 survey establishes that "the gap between the socioeconomic origin of students in private schools and colleges (subsidized or not) and public in Colombia was one of the largest among the participating countries"(OECD, 2016, p. 148), which is why it becomes a great social problem, an urgent need that needs to be addressed and reduced, however, this gap has not disappeared today.

Colombia is a country, which among its particularities, stands out its eminently rural character, in this regard, recapitulating the history of this territory from its beginnings, when it became independent from the Spanish Crown, the conditions were adverse and the development of the nation was slowed down for various economic, political, social reasons, among others, which undoubtedly deepened the difficulties, causing a decline in human development with respect to social well-being and quality of life that since these years and until today, millions of inhabitants are still affected by the length and breadth of the Colombian geography, where high social inequality, an evident agrarian backwardness, economic underdevelopment and the lack of real conditions to overcome these deficiencies that seem deepen much more over time(García Villegas et al., 2013).

Undoubtedly, history is articulated in each of the areas the human being experiments and recalls, and that, is the way it allows to know the characteristics of the environment, particularities and the most relevant events; In addition, it allows us to analyze the events that have affected and cause the conditions that differentiate it and which are a fundamental part of the panorama that a territory perceives in order to develop in its present, therefore "history helps to explain what we are and why" (Sanchiz et al., 2019, p. 166).

Thus, as in the evolution of man, unfailingly social sciences, arising from his hand, according to the needs that this presents as it passes through the different moments that have taken place over time, across disciplines (sociology, history, geography, anthropology, economics, among others) configures multiple spaces for the understanding of the individual. From its social being, the space in which it inhabits, the exploration of its interrelations, the progress in the aspects that nourish the development of the species and contribute to establishing new alternatives; possibilities that have facilitated unexpected scenarios, within which the social sciences are at par as an instrument.

In particular, with respect to the educational context, the teaching of education in public institutions continues to be a problematic today due to a deficient infrastructure, which becomes a clear obstacle to educational quality, thus they are challenges to attend to curriculum, food school, means of transportation, uniforms, educational material, school buildings and their respective endowments, variables that affect the fulfillment of the right to education and quality, factors such as deteriorated access roads in their best scenario, since bridle paths predominate, the prolonged heights, the variability of the climate, the rugged geography and the long journeys to get from one place to another that are caused by journeys made on foot, the inefficient and in many cases inoperative coverage of school transport to attend the school day(Arias Gaviria, 2017).

In rural settings, the distance to the educational institution is a great of a difficulty, both because of the fatigue on the journey, and because of the insecurity it represents, "… the way from afar is also risk, it is also danger. Evil lurks not only in the human will, but also at the crossroads of the road... distance is not only for children... teachers also suffer..."(Echavarría Grajales et al., 2020, p. 21). The presence of criminal gangs or armed groups that intimidate the population and exercise direct control over its inhabitants that violate the peaceful meaning of community life, that portray what has happened in past decades and that still oppresses "with violence that it still persists" (Arias Gaviria, 2017, p. 55), in this reality that is established daily in various places of the national geography as a daily violence.

There is a series of events, since impunity or not, try to address in the wake of public policies aimed at overcoming the "social conflict"(Castillo et to the., 2018, p. 217), but for various reasons it be elusive its resolution and it is not achieved. In this reality the teacher must face and resist the dynamics that are gestating, "they face evil in the unmistakably rural (in terms of specialties, temporalities and cultural conditions); in the defense of life (the school as a trench of peace and pedagogy as a defense against the imaginary of war)"(Echavarría Grajales et al., 2020, p. 13), teachers play a role that undoubtedly disrupts their individualities, in exchange for proposing to achieve a formative purpose. The thought of scenarios of peace is part of the connotation of the socio-educational; the role of education is essential for overcoming the dynamics of violence.

This is the panorama, which has referred to past decades, which is also accompanied by the implementation of a traditionalist teaching, which has changed little in practice, and still retains many elements of 19th century behaviorism and the objectives that were pursued. With needs and circumstances that demand dynamics that adjust to the conditions that present themselves today. However, rurality in the country is a reality that in many ways lacks effective attention from the State, which on many occasions can only be interpreted as abandonment(Andrade, 2016), the way in which these communities have had to mediate the difficulties to try to get ahead, in the midst of shortages, isolation, remoteness, violence, lack of opportunities, the conditions have been perpetuated decade after decade, from generation to generation, causing that in the different facets of life, have to face a variety of limitations.

Namely, in the field of education, rurality suffers from a huge gap compared to the possibilities an institution in the city with respect to the access, transport, resources, educative tools, connectivity, among others; There is high inequality among rural inhabitants who "… have less access to public goods, both social and productive, that the State can provide; the result is a situation of exclusion"(Ministry of National Education, 2015, p. 13), which is perceived in indicators such as: the multidimensional poverty index with 45.9% in rural areas and 18.5% in municipal seats(Ministry of National Education, 2015), there is talk of illiteracy that in the rural population is five times higher than the figures in urban areas(Unesco, 2010).

All this inequity is reflected, for example, in the low endowment and low performance of the student in terms of quality, and that is exemplified on a large scale in the national territory, since if a child is born in the country , has worse performance than if it grows in the city and, in turn, if one thinks about comparing it with the characteristics of an average institution in a rural area of a country that stands out in terms of human development or quality of life, as may be the case of Norway, Denmark or Finland, where they speak in terms of rural development, organic farming, bio economy, among others, options that involve the development of the productive sector without sacrificing the territory and its long-term benefits(European Network for Rural Development, 2019), an economic dynamic is faced that intends to strengthen basic, but indispensable aspects for its inhabitants and their assiduous needs, thus training in this and other areas is a man it was to boost their progress.

It is in these countries where there has been a commitment to an agrarian reform that modernizes the countryside and multiplies the possibilities of the productive sector, but even more, a crucial factor in the economic and social success of the Scandinavian countries has been the education sector. However, after the slightly scamming twenty years can be noticed, still, the great need we have of social investment in the country, and high commitment to make education dynamic epicenter of society.

In these Scandinavian nations, these aspects have been integrated into the vision of development that has been put in place for a long time, on the other hand, in Colombia education still evokes features of distinction and inequality "we have not overcome that feature of colonial society in the fate of those was cast as the origin and social class (Spanish, Creole or Indian) we had people"(García Villegas et to the., 2013, p. 86), which is translated into great difficulties, so that a comprehensive education is established, within which everyone can have access to quality, even so that the inhabitants of rural areas can find a good development in their quality of life.

This gap to which reference is made is a great difficulty for education in Colombia, because the budgets allocated do not solve these social problems, even when the efforts of professionals and citizens are perceived, government measures are insufficient To take advantage of the potentialities from the educational field, even more, the inability in rural areas is seen, which has only been left with the lags ofyesteryear, at a time when dynamics are demanded that promote and generate an economic development anchored to the necessary human development.

However, the way in which education is configured in Colombia and its particularities must be taken into account, so that there are two great difficulties; From the academy, there are still practices that need to break with passive, thoughtless and uncreative methods, and on the other hand, the inability reflected by the measures and policies issued by government agencies to face educational difficulties, because although, have made several changes, it has to be analyzed.

In the first place, there are the pedagogical measures, an issue that is addressed in the next section; There is also the issue of infrastructure, within which the implementation of the Single Day should be mentioned, which was launched as the most suitable way to increase quality, however, to date, what is most perceived are difficulties regarding the food in school restaurants, the inability of the facilities and necessary endowments in educational institutions to comply with the proposed day.

Due to the difficult situation in education, the government increased the budget for the education sector to face the limitations of educational institutions; the previous government increased the education budget by more than 80%, despite this it is not enough; Ángel Pérez affirms that, despite the increase, in countries like Mexico and Chile they invest close to double and continue with a poor education, the quality will not arrive with the single day, the Pisa tests show it; therefore, until the day the needs continue without been enough the efforts, which exposes the ineffectiveness and the difficulties of one day. More still, all this plays another major problem, corruption and widespread scandals that arise about the budgets of the nation, which does not allow development of these capitals, which ultimately are not only economic, It is the sum that corresponds to expanding the cultural capitals, what hurts the most is that these latent needs in which education runs aground, without doubt.

At present, the educational field contemplates a scenario in which governments have been concerned about access to education, building policies that have managed to provide education for all, but a school for a few ... who still thinks the most important is reading and writing; In this information age where, in an ideal of conditions, "knowledge at hand" is available, it is clear that quality is a necessity, the solution is not covered with access, it is necessary to change the approach and determine the relevant dynamics so that , from educational institutions, human beings with the appropriate tools are managed so that they can create the best possible development in society.

Accordingly, in the present it has several difficulties that urgently need attention from the State, there is a little what community can do, but it is proper to mention that, improvements and solutions that inside educational institutions can orchestrate It is what can really give the best result, it is important that the academic aspect is attended to rigorously and that the closest alternatives are sought to stimulate learning, all efforts that can have a positive impact on the local context.

While taking into account the above grounds, it is proposed in this paper a review of some of the regulations of the educational environment for, in the first order, assimilate the way the education in Colombia works in their levels of primary and secondary; and secondly, to understand its specificity in the subject Social Sciences, in order to understand the particularities to facilitate the teaching-learning process.

To begin, education is declared as a fundamental right that appears regulated in Colombian politics constitution under the article 67 which defines it as:

A public service that has a social function;... Education will train the Colombian in respect for human rights, peace and democracy; and in the practice of work and recreation, for the cultural, scientific, technological improvement and for the protection of the environment... it will be compulsory between five and fifteen years of age and that will comprise at least one year of preschool and nine of basic education(Colombia, 1991).

Education pursues, as its main function, the knowledge of rights, which implies their implementation, respecting them, but also having the necessary knowledge to use the mechanisms to enforce them, therefore, there is the recognition of the norms citizens, democracy, the appropriation of culture, actions that contribute to peace, which evoke the preservation of the patrimony, the environment, in addition, the contributions can be made to the scientific, technological and cultural task, in that way, all this is combined with the social sciences, it is linked to the formation of the human being, to their social function, which is essential, and in no way should this aspect be downplayed. The inherent relationship that takes place between education and society is clear, likewise, the family and the school are the agents that connote the social being and the greed of humanity that should characterize the formation of the student.

It is the Ministry of National- MEN Education in Colombia, responsible for ensuring all relevant to this area, serves from a set of rules as the 115, 1994 law, which deals with education and, in its First Article establishes it as "... a process of permanent, personal, cultural and social training that is based on an integral concept of the human person, their dignity, their rights and their duties..."(Colombia, 1991).

This same law governs the basic and secondary education, which stipulates different entities levels for the assessment of basic standards of competencies, which are the minimum that the student should achieve in a given set of degrees, (first through third, fourth fifth, sixth to seventh, eighth to ninth in basic education and tenth to eleven in terms of average), to be promoted appropriately within their training. The basic competency standards are defined as "… one of the parameters of what every boy, girl and young person must know and know how to do to achieve the expected level of quality as they pass through the educational system and the external and internal evaluation is the instrument par excellence to know how far or how close to achieving the quality established with the standards…"(Ministry of National Education, 2006, p. 9).

Now, the standardsMEN (2006)raise them as "… some references that allow evaluating the levels of development of the competences that student are reaching in the course of their school life…" (p.12). The basic term refers to the minimum of requirements that the student must develop to be promoted grade by grade. The competence is "… understood as knowing how to do in concrete situations that require the creative, flexible and responsible application of knowledge, skills and attitudes…"(Ministry of National Education, 2006, p. 12), that is, that the student or the person knows how to do something (determined this by the developed competence), regardless of the context in which it operates, that manages to adapt. I n the generalities in which the country's education is protected, this is how it is regulated and configured to meet the objectives that it pursues in itself and those established by the State and the territory in which it operates.

Normatively when referring to the subject Social Sciences, first establishes it as essential in the formation of the student, as it is noted in its guidelines (Ministry of Education, 2002), undoubtedly efforts to the training of students to be together with the objectives and their role in education should be concrete, therefore, it necessary that the powers must be taken into account for the area, determined according to the guide No 7, which regulates basic standards of competences for language, mathematics, social and natural sciences, where the science standards are generally established , stating that science (social and natural) wants to help form scientific thinking and critical thinking in students. Although the objects of study of these sciences are different, they are linked by factors such as the inquiry methods that lead to their development and the skills that are needed to put them into practice (National Education Ministry, 2006, p. 112).

Thus, to achieve standards in science, must achieve a number of specific actions of thought and production, which are determined in three different categories; These actions appear without numbering, in no order, since they depend on the needs of the problem to be solved, these being "the way of approaching knowledge as scientists do, the management of one's own knowledge... and the development of personal and social commitments"(Ministry of National Education, 2006, p. 114).

Within the management of knowledge of the social sciences are: "relationships with history and cultures, spatial and environmental relationships and ethical-political relationships"(Ministry of National Education, 2006, p. 120), these knowledge are what provide the contents , from which the subject is planned, hand in hand with their knowledge as a science, which seek, on one hand, the formation of research skills, for the approach towards knowledge, its methods and ways of understanding reality, and on the other hand, the putting into practice of values, knowledge, social actions and towards coexistence, which favor a cultural approach and its appropriation.

On the other hand, in deep interrelation, are the curricular guidelines understood as "the epistemological, pedagogical and curricular orientations that the MEN defines... to support the process of foundation and planning of the compulsory and fundamental areas"(Ministry of National Education, 2006), in the social sciences are established within the objectives they have:

"Help to understand the national reality (past-present) to transform the society in which students develop -where necessary. To train men and women who actively participate in their society with a critical, supportive and respectful conscience of the difference and diversity existing in the country and in the world..."(Ministry of National Education, 2002, p. 13).

Considering an active and participatory posture of the human being that is being formed, that has a critical conscience and uses it in favor of society, is not a novelty; It is formulated in the present work, the importance of forming a socio-critical thought, which does not necessarily collide with the stipulations of the Ministry of National Education, but rather requests the use of these, since they constitute a true potential for the formation of the student and for this thought.

In particular, these guidelines require that the social sciences be worked through a flexible, open, integrated and spiral curricular structure. In this regard, each of these characteristics corresponds to the nucleus that makes up the social sciences, so each one must be specified. It is flexible, because the situation to be studied can be done synchronously or diachronically, in different places, making it possible to address the different aspects that& make up the disciplines and to compare their relationships between them.

Open, from the analysis and reflection of the problems of the national and global context, which are dynamic and require approaches that are in line with the present Integrated, with respect to the different disciplines that make up the social and human sciences, so that the various problems are addressed?

In a spiral, since the understanding of social events is proposed progressively, grade by grade, to achieve a more elaborate thinking (socio-cognitive evolution), with increasingly complex reasoning structures, through more competent knowledge and relevant (Ministry of National Education, 2002, pp. 46-47).

This structure of great interest to be used in the curricular design and the use of the contents; however, it is also important to see its application in the classes from the functionality that it can perceive for the subject itself. In this way, flexibility gives relevance to reflection, to rethink features, types, relationships, in such a way that questions, dialogues, necessary analyzes are encouraged on the hypothetical situations that may appear in classes or in some specific activity, the argument to the reasons you have, to determine what are these assumptions and no other, finding alternatives to those situations that are formulated, in short, everything that gives this flexibility denotes great benefit to the socio critic thought.

The openness that it mentions makes it possible for thought to be energized and not only stay in analysis and reflection, but also go to the solution of problems from the review of these contexts.

Integration, it is necessary the ability to address situations of the complexity they keep, to delimit, as with the faces of a geometric figure, the areas that concern it, with the purpose of establishing the contributions for its study.

The spiral progression is a constant that involves the training of the student, it is necessary to adapt the difficulty and complexity according to the degree and characteristics of the students, the use of the class depends largely on this for the students.

However, these curricular guidelines, as well as the basic standards of competencies that have been working and implemented by the MEN since the end of the 20th century and the beginning of the present 21st century, have not been able to respond to the quality demands that education concentrates At the global level, a well-mentioned example is the PISA tests where it indicates that "Colombian students performed less than the OECD average in reading, mathematics and science" (OECD, 2019, p. 2) from the year 2006, which was the first time the test was applied, Colombia has occupied the last places, in this regard, there are several causes as has been mentioned.

The same Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development(OECD, 2016)states that "The majority of students in Colombia who enter secondary education have insufficient basic skills"(OECD, 2016, p. 231), this hinders the training process Subsequent, which is reflected in the shortcomings of its students, that is how the national government, as of 2015, published the Basic Learning Rights-DBA "a set of structuring learning that students have to learn in each of the grades of school education, from transition to eleven "(Ministry of National Education, 2016, p. 5).

The MEN (2016)establishes that basic learning rights are interrelated with curricular guidelines and basic competency standards, such as guidelines and teacher support to meet the objectives sought by education in Colombia. However, in this regard, Gómez and Velasco (2017)state that these DBAs do not have any explicit reference to the aforementioned normative documents and, in addition, "the examples are not consistent with the statement and the evidence... these situations of incoherence add to a highly complex one in terms of the content addressed and the capabilities that students are expected to activate"(Gómez & Velasco, 2017, p. 278). There is little that can be said, since it is a measure that has been around for five years and still appears under construction on its official portals, although in subjects such as language and mathematics there is a second version, in other subjects there are still versions under construction, which makes it difficult to approach. Thus, these basic rights learning have some difficulties, which complicates implementation, therefore, it is necessary to address these issues that could improve from simplifying the language of information, drill down a little further components and interrelate in a concrete and explicit way with existing normative documents(Gómez & Velasco, 2017).

In the review of the above, the dynamics of the course can be glimpsed comprising certain features from its core, with several routings for assimilation in educational practice, although these routings take a few, older than others, majoritarian entity has underperformance relative to this education; Basic competency standards require a rigorous planning exercise that interrelates their categories, without trying to extend the contents that are prioritized, but rather seeking that students deepen this knowledge; to this end, basic skills standards are used for the course, playing great complementarities with the social activity, a matter thathas to do with the socio critic thought, having a connotation towards social interaction and reasoning of the phenomenon that are born in the environment to reach their fair understanding .

On the other hand, there are some complementary regulations that were issued in recent years and are related to the subject Social Sciences, the Peace Chair (Decree 1038 of 2015) and the compulsory nature of teaching Colombian history (Law 1874 of December 27, 2017), in the first instance the Chair of Peace is regulated as a space for training in basic and secondary education that must promote the "appropriation of knowledge and skills related to the territory, culture, the economic and social context and historical memory, in order to rebuild the social fabric… contribute to learning, reflection and dialogue "(District Legal Secretariat of the Mayor's Office of Bogotá DC, 2015, p. 3).

Regarding the Law 1874, a specific call is made to history to establish a more active and relevant role in the formation of students with respect to the appropriation of their national past, but even more important is reflection, analysis, criticism and the search for alternatives to the challenges and difficulties of the present and the future, since its objectives seek to develop this socio-critical thinking from the study and understanding of the historical and social events of humanity(Congress of the Republic of Bogotá, 2017).

Although in this particular, the importance of the social sciences subject is highlighted, at no time is the contribution of other subjects unknown, or the importance of interdisciplinary work, on the contrary, it is necessary to mention the great importance of training of socio-critical thinking and the high degree of interrelation that this keeps for the educational purposes outlined above.

The social sciences and thought sociocritic

Society has certain connotations that obey a historical evolution that responds, in turn, to the present and its actuality, that is why the new century brings its own anxieties and particularities, every aspect of the life of the human being has great importance, but it is essential to recognize that in the development of society, education is one of the bases on which it is supported, therefore, it is essential to take as a starting point, the existing conflict between this and the time, since the Application of a traditional teaching leads to the decontextualization of students from their reality, with the continuous scientific, technological, economic changes and their repercussions, in addition to the influence of the media that minimizes their own thinking, (Santiago, 2016); Therefore, the true role of education lies in deciphering this everyday life(Pérez Esclarín, 2010), which is so unique and particular to each community, and the features that each territory presents, where it is necessary to combine the characteristics of socio-critical thought with dynamics that evoke personal criteria from the classroom, but without losing sight of the value of the community.

The subject social sciences has a fundamental task, which focuses on developing the actions of the person according to the context or determined by analysis, reflection, interaction with others, questions, while taking into account the different forms from which a solution can be given, arguing, privileging the understanding tied to the skills, knowledge and attitudes to be assumed in the different scenarios of daily life, this is the perspective from the socio-critical thought that is combined with the social sciences.

Now, for effects of the subject social sciences on the national scene, it is essential to understand the configuration of this relative present; It should be mentioned first that the current national government, has not been performed, until this moment changes or modifications to have into account in education and this issue in particular, aspects comes from the previous government, and the most recent with the historical moment that lived the country with peace accords in Havana, which among other provisions, it was a situation that opened two very specific fronts for education already mentioned from the normative, the peace chair and the forcing of the teaching of history of Colombia, which without doubt, go in correspondence with the socio critic thought. Then, the chair of peace joined educational institutions in order to enhance and project a more affable and suitable Colombia, with new generations who have overcome violence and issues as flashpoints and harmful as the armed conflict and its derivatives.

It is essential to understand that these last years have led the country to rediscover scenes so similar to those of past times that is terrifying. In this case, the attacks and hundreds of social leaders who have died in these dynamics of violence(Osorio Matorel, 2018), being this, one of the faces that threatens the tranquility of the Colombians, but more still, regarding the subject, leading to question how to implement this chair of peace in the middle of a reality that forces to address the circumstances of the crime and terrorism. It is a scenario that perhaps unsettles more than one, since governments for decades have paraded in their presidential terms without solving this national bleeding, irrational by others, that it is urgent to end. However, neither should be ignore the places that, in one way or another, have been able to escape it and beyond this, the importance of open spaces to treat reality that live in each community, to acquire elements that strengthen the ties of these people and find from educational settings a way to approach that daily life.

It may be helpful to fit the context of this cathedra of peace, is to have very aware that society has not been immune to the conflicts in its history, so, human beings cannot deny these, what can best do is to choose how to regulate it to be productive and non destructive(Lederach, 2000)to take a positive way to interpret the conflict, so that the approach it from the studios and multiple readings at the academy, learns to transform it; where depth of information and degree of knowledge we have to respect, play a decisive role, thus, form human beings who can regulate their conflicts without having to resort to violence.

The transformation of these hostility scenarios into opportunities for understanding, to improve the meaning of life, agrees with the central purpose of socio-critical thinking and a form of active and participatory learning of students with dialogic spaces that allow doubts, reflections, analyze their environment, leaving room for explanations, justify their views, determine alternatives that tend to empathy as a form of a plausible coexistence.

On the other hand, there is the great relevance that history represents for the role that humanity unfolds, the referents, the times, their circumstances, among other aspects, which clearly deserve to be studied and addressed in direct consequence with the contributions they raise, but departing from a past, and also a present with a view to be grasped, understood and which it is achieved with a high sense of belonging.

Thus, 1874 law, December 27, 2017 aims to "restore the compulsory teaching of the history of Colombia as an integrated discipline in the curriculum guidelines of the social sciences in basic and secondary education"(Congress of the Republic of Bogotá, 2017, p. 1), this highlights the existence of a difficulty in the teaching-learning of social sciences, but also reinforces its importance in training and its connoted importance, among other objectives and establishes "to develop critical thinking through the understanding of the historical and social processes of our country, in the American and world context "(Congress of the Republic of Bogotá, 2017, p. 1).

An aspect of great need to take into account in training, because it is about feeling and reliving what is relevant for the edification of the present, is to understand its meanings and repercussions on the individual and social being, it is not knowledge and the learning of events in a flat way, it is to understand their importance in the ways of life, in the collective, for this reason, the dynamics that allow students to involve themselves in their own learning become relevant. Regarding the value that these learning concentrates, it should be noted that today many Colombians have no idea of history (of Colombia, Latin America or the world) and lack critical knowledge of the past, something very serious for a country immersed in armed conflicts and social problems.

The teaching learning of the subject Social Sciences has a scenario with serious setbacks to understand the situations that affect the daily life of the communities(Santiago, 2016)In a country where its inhabitants do not stop to think about their past, it is quite complex for them to appropriate their present.

In all this, the story becomes a backbone for the subject social science, a starting point for disciplines in their various fields, the same as for its subject, for that matter, are the social sciences the calls to perceive and reflect on the Colombian reality. In this way, the essence that forms this knowledge is determined by the fact that it is not a dead letter, that, on the contrary, there is dialogue, opinions are confronted with arguments, issues are analyzed, particularities are sought, reflect on reality, question it, problematize it from the didactic exercise to stimulate the encounter with that history and the formation of socio-critical thinking. A crucial factor for teaching history for Pablo Rodriguez, professor of History of National university of Colombia, is that there is a no single way of teaching, this requires analysis, constant review of the facts leading to perform the reinterpretations, which uses also memory as well as the multi - causal explanations of the events of the past.

The story involves a complex dynamic that perceives a multiplicity of factors and implies an active spirit, the most assiduous scholars are those who reveal the interpretations, this is how, from the information collected, the reinterpretation and the most truthful approach to the facts is necessary. The past requires thought and rethought, understanding which stipulates as a point of arrival, needs the retrospective opinion of the one who studies it.

On the other hand, the social sciences can be understood as the vehicle by which the necessary elements can be founded to shape another type of reality, which can be made possible from childhood education and providing in the same way to the youths that need place as soon as possible in the reality itself and its environment, and begin to assimilate in a reflexive and critical way the scenarios that enfold them; it is a way, so that these social sciences generate awareness for that work, if necessary to defend and claim made, decent living conditions, a territory with justice and equity. As part of a social transformation that goes concomitancy with the formation of socio critic thought as a way of conceiving and characterizing the training process for the case is intrinsically related to provisions pursued from social sciences.

In this way the socio critic thought has a collective purpose, according toAlvarado and Garcia (2008), with the socio critic it seeks "the transformation of the structure of social relations and responding to certain problems generated by these, starting from the action, reflection of the community members"(Alvarado & García, 2008, p. 189). In this regard, there is the meaning of what community is, it represents that which is beyond a geographical space and that corresponds to the unity of a human group that shares a history, interests, a spiritual and physical reality, customs and a vision of the world, since the community basically is configured as the organ that feat in an appropriate way, the social development for a given territory, based on their own needs, through the clarification of the basic concepts, it starts to fit out the framework that constitutes the learning of social sciences.

Now, socio-critical thinking tries to facilitate the identification and understanding of the situations that take place according to the context; from self - reflection, the community is called to actively participate in decision-making regarding issues and relevant problems inevitably must be involves all the members of the community to work so genuine and with the intention to improve in their difficulties. Undoubtedly, this thought starts from the encounter that the person has with himself and the environment that surrounds him, including other people, resources, the environment and in general, everything that happens and lives outside of the existence of the person.

According to McLaren (2005)in socio-critical thinking the student must be highlighted by a firm appropriation of his being, from his human situation, as well as social, to establish himself as an active person of his own formation; Indeed, the formation of the socio critic thought and the subject social science requires the constant participating of the students in of all spaces that may have to contribute to the improvement of social conditions, taking into account, a key element, consciousness, the understanding of reality based on the knowledge that the person has of himself and his relationship with everything that surrounds him and that is part of the world in which he lives.

This is why the student must interpret, understand, criticize, propose in terms of daily life, full of particularities that surround him and in which he cannot ignore his humanity seen in respect, solidarity, honesty, among many other human values, with a consciousness provided with a social sense of empowerment of its own reality in the actions that are continuously developed in daily life.

It can be appreciated the relationship that the subject social science has with the t socio critic thought in his praxis, since "it is committed to the transforming action of society through the unveiling of the hidden aspects in social practice and constitution of subjects capable to transform reality"(Vélez, 2003, p. 142). Undoubtedly, some of them have previously shown particularities that account for the difficulties that arise in the country, in the same way, the social sciences comprise a crucial task that seems to have remained on the paper and that inevitably needs to be applied to the context.

The first step is to provide the necessary knowledge as a starting point for the student to have different tools with which to question, discuss, reflect, analyze, argue, elucidating different ways to interpret, understand, criticize and to the extent that it is possible to provide alternatives that clarify and contribute to solving existing problems, from the most micro scenarios of local realities, to macro and more complex environments, which in themselves need the construction of a broad social fabric, the development of chains of human value.

The commitment to which it is sought goes beyond "opposing what exists... but rather determining what is existing" (Molinuevo, 2001, p. 9), it is in this way that socio-critical thinking can be formed. It is important in these reflections attend one of the premises pointing Sartre (2009)for existentialism: "The first step of existentialism is to put every man in possession of what is, and settle on it full responsibility for its existence. And when we say that man is responsible for himself, we do not mean that man is responsible for his strict individuality, but that he is responsible for all men"(Sartre, 2009, p. 33).

From the sense that can be given to these words, this turns out to be one of the most critical principles of coexistence; if considered in the field of education, it can be very useful for the purpose to be achieved by the formation, in one way or another, converge with science, because beyond reach as property, the plan from the possibility; the what to do with it, The conscience from the sense of the responsibility, the right to know, to participate and transform. This is the responsibility of the social being, a constant point of arrival and departure for socio critic thought, which recreates their imaginaries and the possibility of finding more prosperous realities for humanity.



The education in Colombia is a fundamental scenario to enhance the transformation of the national reality, however, it is permeated by various factors, even today, they have not been overcome, and dimensioned a wide inequality in the population, to the open a gap in the development possibilities that Colombian society could have.

Inequality in aspects as education is a scenario that many families face; an alternative is the work that the school can do as an integrating hub of the community, to the extent that this unions happen, it will strength the way how education can be harnessed, community integration is a key factor to take into account in training.

The subject social science from the same standards and in relation to the socio critic thought, established in their actions building human participative, critics, armed with consciousness, among other features, so it is considered a necessity to link all possible efforts for the formation of thought from educational praxis.

History is a transversal axis collecting categorical knowledge and allows redimentioning the various disciplines of the social sciences to the development in classes, from making it possible to establish dynamics joining to the awareness of the student from educational scenarios, but without neglecting the relevance with the appropriation of the context and participation based on the respect and solidarity in view of a solid construction of the social fabric.

Socio-critical thinking requires human beings to evoke actions to the extent required, taking into account the needs and particularities of the context. This thinking from its own conception is shown to be closely related to the development of consciousness in individuals, active participation and social transformation.

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Received: July 14, 2020; Accepted: September 16, 2020

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