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Mendive. Revista de Educación

versión On-line ISSN 1815-7696

Rev. Mendive vol.19 no.4 Pinar del Río oct.-dic. 2021  Epub 10-Dic-2021

 

Original article

Heritage education in pedagogical careers at the University of Pinar del Río "Hermanos Saíz Montes de Oca"

Marlen Silva López1  * 
http://orcid.org/0000-0001-6477-955X

Alina Jiménez Morejón1 
http://orcid.org/0000-0003-0717-273X

Noelia Afre Socorro1 
http://orcid.org/0000-0003-2185-3128

1 Universidad de Pinar del Río "Hermanos Saiz Montes de Oca". Cuba

ABSTRACT

The university as a sociocultural institution has within its mission to preserve, develop and promote culture in its different manifestations, among which cultural heritage, as a socially valuable element, needs to be preserved for current and future generations. In this sense, the research addressed the issue of heritage education in pedagogical careers at the University of Pinar del Río. Its main objective was to propose a heritage education program as part of the optional curriculum of the subjects taught from the university extension for students of pedagogical careers, which contributes to the preservation of the nation's cultural heritage, as well as to the preservation of the cultural heritage of the university itself. The study was carried out from a descriptive-explanatory investigative perspective and the recurrence to methods of the theoretical and empirical levels, including the logical historical, together with the logical procedures of synthesis analysis, as well as scientific research techniques such as the interview and the survey. . The main results obtained showed weaknesses in the heritage education process in university pedagogical careers. From the study carried out, it is concluded that heritage education in pedagogical careers at the University of Pinar del Río constitutes an expeditious way for a better knowledge, preservation and dissemination of cultural heritage, as well as contributing to the development of values and the strengthening of cultural identity.

Keywords: pedagogical careers; heritage education; cultural heritage; preservation

Introduction

During the last two decades, the issue of heritage education as an educational strategy to preserve the cultural heritage of peoples has been gaining momentum on the international and national scene, in the face of the prevailing neoliberal globalization, which threatens to destroy the cultural values created by the man.

In the context of instantaneous planetary communication and globalization there is a risk of a standardization of culture. However, to exist, each person needs to bear witness to their daily life, express their creative capacity and preserve the traces of their history. This is only achieved through cultural heritage.

The 1972 UNESCO Convention, in its Article 1, conceptualized the Cultural Heritage in a general way as the set of movable and immovable property, tangible and intangible, of historical, artistic, aesthetic, architectural, archaeological, documentary, bibliographic, environmental value. , ecological, and other contents of scientific and cultural interest, as well as the customs, habits and cultural traditions of the peoples that make up their imaginary representative [United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), 1972] . This is a broad concept; made up of several elements, but in its simplest meaning it can be assumed as an essential reference of the assets that are inherited by the nation as testimony of the tangible and intangible expressions of the peoples in their historical evolution. Meanwhile, it is a social construction that has become dependent on the different contexts, and constitutes the testimony of the historical development processes that a certain society has gone through, and an inescapable reference of its identity, which stands as an important factor of social and cultural development.

After several decades of having been issued this concept, at the present time it takes on greater relevance and meaning from the new social reality that prevails in the current international panorama, and in the face of the emergence of negative phenomena such as the loss of cultural references and traditions.

Thus, in the last decade, numerous studies carried out from different disciplines such as communication, and mainly education, has contributed to overcoming the various existing reductionist views towards heritage, including tourism and economics, and the role is recognized in all its dimensions of education in the processes of value and socialization of the same to contribute to its preservation.

The aforementioned convention recognized the need to include education in the analysis and study of heritage through education and information programs, with the aim of stimulating appreciation, respect and interest towards the cultural and natural heritage of peoples.

In this educational scenario, Cuban universities are inserted, politically and sociocultural committed to the Cuban revolutionary project, and with the training of competent and cultured professionals.

At the Inaugural Conference of the X International Congress of Higher Education 2016, held in Cuba under the slogan "Innovative University for sustainable human development: looking to 2030", the then Minister of Higher Education Alarcón (2016) reaffirmed the role of Higher Education as an indispensable element for sustainable human development as an indispensable condition for development, as well as for the reaffirmation and preservation of our cultural identity.

In a similar vein, the final Declaration of the III Regional Conference on Higher Education for Latin America and the Caribbean 2018 (CRES), held in Córdoba, Argentina, on the centenary of the historic University Reform, reaffirmed the role of universities in the socio-political, cultural, economic and technological transformation that societies demand today (CRES, 2018).

Consequently, in the inaugural Conference of the XII Congress of Higher Education "University 2020", held in Cuba under the slogan "The University and the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development", the Minister of Higher Education, Saborido (2020), endorsed the commitment assumed in the previous quotes about the leading role of Higher Education in social transformation, in the training of comprehensive and competent professionals, and in the university's contribution to culture and, consequently, to sustainable human development.

The arguments presented reaffirm that the university, as a sociocultural institution, has within its mission to preserve, develop and promote culture in its different manifestations, including cultural heritage as a socially valuable element that needs to be preserved for current and future generations; therefore, heritage education becomes an educational strategy to generate heritage awareness and culture in the university community.

Consequently, it is imperative that heritage education, understood by Rodríguez & Santos (2012) as a "pedagogical, permanent, systematic, interdisciplinary and contextualized process" (p. 40), intended in turn to knowledge, valuation, preservation and dissemination of cultural heritage in any of its aspects, as well as aimed at the formation and development of values, is inserted in the curriculum of pedagogical careers, in a way that allows the student to identify, value, preserve and disseminate the cultural heritage of the nation; all this so that, once graduated as an education professional, he is in a position to use heritage as an educational resource from the subject he will teach based on quality education.

Based on these criteria, the relevance and importance of heritage education is sustained as an indispensable content in the Cuban university, to which the training of education professionals must pay tribute.

At an international level, the subject gained momentum in the 1980s and was gaining space in countries such as Brazil, Chile, Mexico and Colombia, and in European countries such as Spain, with vast experience in this regard from the studies of Fontal (2016);Cuenca et al. (2020);Díez, MC (2020);Raboso (2017) and Souza et al. (2018), which have served as important references for Cuba.

In the context of Cuban Higher Education, despite the fact that the studies have been scattered, the contributions provided by Aroche et al. (2018), Laffita & Laffita (2017), Rodríguez & Santos (2012), Rodríguez et al. (2017), as well as the University of the Arts and the San Gerónimo de La Habana University College, championed in programs, events and research on the subject under study.

Particularly, in pedagogical careers at the University of Pinar del Río "Hermanos Saíz Montes de Oca", based on the teaching experience of the researchers in subjects related to the study of cultural heritage, a certain scientific gap is found on the subject under study , since explicitly under the denomination or nomenclature of heritage education there is no curricular or optional program, although aspects in some specialties are implicitly addressed, as well as elements related to the study of the cultural heritage of the university itself have not been addressed. To this is added that the extracurricular activities that could respond to heritage education are not carried out systematically.

At present, the government leadership in the country pays special attention to the preservation of cultural heritage as an expression of our cultural identity, essential for the maintenance of the Cuban revolutionary project. This is evidenced in the Guidelines of the Economic and Social Policy of the country ratified in the VIII Congress of the Communist Party of Cuba, specifically in Chapter VI Social Policy, guideline 102, which establishes the need to continue promoting the defense of identity and the preservation of cultural heritage in any of its aspects; Therefore, educating to preserve identity is one of the great challenges facing the University of Pinar del Río "Hermanos Saíz Montes de Oca" [Communist Party of Cuba (PCC), 2021].

Under the prism of these considerations, the main objective of the research was to propose a Heritage Education program as part of the optional curriculum of the subjects taught from the university extension for students of pedagogical careers, which contributes to the preservation of the cultural heritage of the nation, as well as the preservation of the cultural heritage of the university itself.

Materials and methods

The dialectical-materialist approach is the rector in the research as a philosophical basis that allowed analyzing the components of the research design from a scientific-methodological perspective of the educational processes in the new socio-historical contexts.

The historical-logical method was useful for determining the particularities of the heritage education process in pedagogical careers. It also allowed to establish the conceptual framework of the investigation, as well as to determine the main manifestations of the investigated object.

The analysis-synthesis allowed approaching the object of the research by determining the constitutive elements of the heritage education process in the context of pedagogical careers at the university.

The use of the empirical method of documentary analysis was valid for the verification of the current state of heritage education in pedagogical careers of the university through the analysis of sources such as: study programs and the professional model of the different specialties that made up the sample of the investigation.

The in-depth interview was of marked utility, since it provided the necessary information for the diagnosis of the research and for the design of the program in question.

From the quantitative research methodology, the survey was used, designed by the authors with the aim of collecting information to verify the perception of students of pedagogical careers about the heritage education process and its current state.

The research universe was made up of 70 students, (Figure 1)from second to fourth year of different specialties, and 20 teachers. From a random probability sampling, a sample of 40 students from the Bachelor of Education specialties was selected. Primary, Bachelor of Education. Geography, Bachelor of Education. Biology and Bachelor of Education. Artistic Education, for 57.1% representativeness and 12 teachers, for 60% representativeness.

Graph 1 - Representativeness of the sample. Prepared by the authors 

Results

The diagnosis made in the research through the application of the aforementioned methods, techniques and instruments, guaranteed a deeper explanation of the research object and allowed to identify the main weaknesses.

The survey applied to the 40 students that made up the research sample showed that only 15 (37.5%) stated that they received aspects related to heritage education in their training, while the rest, 25 (62.5%) reported they do not have received topics about it; an issue that clearly calls for priority attention.

Another result contributed by the survey was the fact that, of the 40 students surveyed, only 11 (27.5%) were able to mention any of the categories or classifications of heritage, and none made mention of university cultural heritage, an emerging field in heritage studies in Cuba and of importance for the university community, which shows ignorance of general aspects of cultural heritage that every student should know.

Likewise, the results obtained showed ignorance about the main laws for the preservation of cultural heritage at the international level and in Cuba, since, of the 40 students, only 13 (32.5%) were able to mention the Law of Museums, while 22 (55%) did not show knowledge about it.

In the documentary analysis carried out on the study programs of the different careers that made up the research sample, in whose professional model a group of potentialities are appreciated to incorporate topics related to heritage education, it is contradictory that they are not used at all its magnitude.

The exam carried out on the study plan of the Bachelor of Education career. Primary, showed that there are shortcomings on the subject, despite the fact that in the CD's own curriculum there are the subjects History of Pinar del Río and Pinar geography, conducive to working on issues related to heritage education from the nexus between heritage and local history; those that, according to the document, do not offer many possibilities for the treatment of local history due to the reduced time it has in the Study Plan, constituting a sensitive weakness.

On the other hand, in the documentary research carried out on the study plans of the Bachelor of Education careers. Geography and Bachelor of Education. Biology, it is appreciated that although aspects of heritage education are addressed from some subjects, they are treated with an environmental vision typical of both specialties; however, the professional model of the same assumes as a task within its teaching-methodological function the direction of the Teaching-Learning Process with an interdisciplinary and holistic approach. Likewise, it is aimed at the development of the aesthetic, ethical and axiological in terms of the development of a general culture, aspects that could be promoted from heritage education and its importance for the preservation of the underlying cultural values in natural environments such as: landscapes , caves, caverns, archaeological components, cultural traditions, artistic manifestations, biodiversity and other elements of a cultural nature, based on the nexus of man and his natural and social environment, emphasizing the local.

In the case of the inquiry made to the study plan of the Bachelor of Education. Artistic Education it was found that, despite the fact that its base curriculum is made up of 12 disciplines that contribute to the objectives of the career and the profile of the professional to which it is aspired, as well as from its optional / elective curriculum elements related to heritage education through its contents, it is paradoxical that the surveyed students showed difficulty in conceptualizing the term heritage, identifying some of its categories or classifications, as well as little perception of the importance of heritage education for their training.

The authors insist on the need to reinforce content on heritage education in this career, considering that the future professional of this specialty must pay tribute to compliance with the principles of the Cuban Cultural Policy, among which is the preservation and dissemination of the cultural heritage as a defense of our cultural identity.

The in-depth interview carried out with two deans, two vice deans of training, three heads of courses, four heads of departments and a specialist in heritage issues from the university itself, contributed that there is consensus on the insufficient recognition of the importance of the subject in the university environment, to which deficiencies from the curricular point of view are added, which is why they consider it pertinent to incorporate heritage education through interdisciplinary relationships with the subjects and disciplines of the curriculum. Likewise, they are of the criterion that there are shortages of spaces and events that contribute to the subject in pedagogical careers. In turn, they refer to the need to create a chair or group dedicated to study and research on heritage education, and the creation of spaces to carry out activities related to the subject. All the interviewees recognize the importance of the subject in the formation of the student of pedagogical careers.

The result of the study is the project proposal Management for Heritage Education in the context of the University of Pinar del Río "Hermanos Saíz Montes de Oca", conceived from the Department of Extracurricular Activities, in conjunction with the Faculty of Early Childhood Education of the own university, unprecedented in the past.

The analysis of the results obtained in the research finally made it possible to group the information obtained and establish the following regularities.

Lack of programs and optional courses on heritage education.

Lack of knowledge of the epistemological and methodological bases of heritage education.

Non-existence of a chair or group dedicated to the study, research and promotion of heritage education.

Lack of knowledge about general notions about cultural heritage.

Lack of communication supports for the dissemination of aspects related to heritage education.

Little use of ICTs based on heritage education activities.

Insufficient scientific production on heritage education.

Few scientific events on heritage education.

Lack of spaces for activities that contribute to heritage education.

Insufficient recognition of the importance of heritage education in the university context.

A Heritage Education Program is proposed that has as legal support Resolution No. 2/2018, Article 84. Regulation of Teaching and Methodological Work [Ministry of Higher Education (MES), 2018] and the National University Extension Program (PNEU).

Program description

Subject: Heritage Education

Total hours: 16 hours

Academic component: 8 hours

Practical component: 8 hours

Establishment

In the context of instantaneous planetary communication and globalization there is a risk of a standardization of culture. However, to exist, each person needs to bear witness to their daily life, express their creative capacity and preserve the traces of their history. This is only achieved through cultural heritage.

The cultural heritage of a people is generally assumed as the inheritance of the past, what is bequeathed to us, what we acquire and transmit from one generation to another, insofar as it is a social construction that focuses its importance on being the conduit to link people with their history and culture, and is in turn key to understanding others. Its value lies in its capacity as a bearer of identity at any scale and as an instrument of appropriation of the culture of a social group whose past or traditions are represented in it, which is why it is considered an instrument of consolidation of the social and cultural memory of a town.

The 1972 UNESCO Convention for the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage recognized the need to include education in the analysis and study of heritage. Correspondingly, it declares in its article 27 that: "The States Parties to this Convention, by all appropriate means and above all through educational and information programs, will do everything possible to stimulate in their peoples respect and appreciation for the cultural and natural heritage" (UNESCO, 1972).

In this educational scenario, Cuban universities are inserted, sociocultural and politically committed to the Cuban revolutionary project and with the training of competent and cultured professionals.

Consequently, it is an imperative that heritage education understood by Rodríguez & Santos (2012) as a "pedagogical, permanent, systematic, interdisciplinary and contextualized process", intended in turn to the knowledge, valuation, preservation and dissemination of cultural heritage in anyone of its aspects, as well as aimed at the formation and development of values, it is inserted in the educational strategies of the university and allows the university student to identify, value, preserve and disseminate the cultural heritage of the nation in which they live, as well as the elements that make up the cultural heritage of the university in which they are formed.

That is why the proposal to insert heritage education in the training of the student of pedagogical careers contributes with the professional mode of action, facilitates a better knowledge, valuation, preservation and dissemination of the university's cultural and cultural heritage with the use of ways and general procedures, which allow the student to assume an educational position and a sustainable use of the heritage resource after graduation.

Problem: need of the students of pedagogical careers of a greater knowledge of heritage education to preserve the cultural heritage of the nation and of the university.

Object: heritage education.

Course objective: to assess the importance of heritage education for the preservation of the cultural heritage of the nation and of the university.

Specific objectives

Instructions:

  1. Argue the main concepts on Cultural Heritage.

  2. Identify the different classifications of heritage.

  3. Characterize heritage assets of relevant importance for Cuba and Pinar del Río.

  4. Argue the concept of Heritage Education.

  5. Value the importance of heritage as an educational resource and in the university context.

Educational:

  1. Promote values such as patriotism, identity, collectivism, industry and responsibility, based on the importance of the subject.

It constitutes the general system of knowledge:

Didactic unit 1: Heritage: concepts, fundamental values, preservation and dissemination (6 hours: 2h lecture, 2h practical class and 2h seminar).

Heritage: conceptualization and different classifications (cultural heritage, natural heritage, underwater heritage, documentary heritage, intangible or intangible heritage, living cultural heritage, university cultural heritage).

Main UNESCO conventions in the field of Heritage: Convention on the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage, 1972; Convention on the Protection of the Underwater Cultural Heritage, 2001; Convention for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Heritage, 2003; Draft Convention on the Protection of the Diversity of Cultural Contents and Artistic Expressions; UNESCO-University and Heritage Forum Network. Orientation of the final evaluation of the subject.

Actions system:

  1. Define the concept of heritage and its different classifications.

  2. Assess the value of heritage in educational processes.

  3. Argue the main regulations of UNESCO and Cuba for the preservation of cultural heritage.

Evaluation: the evaluation of the unit will be done in a systematic and partial way through the preparation of tasks and the delivery and discussion of an individual written work on the cultural heritage of the town and the university, and its protection according to current legislation.

Didactic unit 2: Heritage education and its importance for the protection of the cultural heritage of the nation and the university (10 hours: 4h lecture, 6h practical class).

Objective: to incorporate heritage education through interdisciplinary relationships with the subjects and disciplines of the curriculum, for the protection of the cultural heritage of the nation and the university.

Knowledge system:

Cuban cultural policy and its application for the preservation of cultural heritage. Fundamental legislation: Law for the Protection of Cultural Heritage of August 16, 1977, and Decree no. 118; Regulations for the execution of the Law for the Protection of Cultural Heritage, September 23, 1983; The Commission for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage. Resolution 126, December 2004; Cuba on the World Heritage List. Viñales, site declared Cultural Landscape of Humanity, selection criteria, its preservation.

Heritage education concept. Heritage education in Latin America and Cuba. The university cultural heritage and its preservation. The relationship of heritage education with the subjects and disciplines of the curriculum.

Actions system:

  1. Explain the legal basis for the protection of the nation's cultural heritage.

  2. Characterize the Cuban sites inscribed on the World Heritage list and their values.

  3. Identify the cultural heritage of the University.

  4. Incorporate heritage education through interdisciplinary relationships in the career curriculum.

Evaluation: the evaluation will be done in a systematic and partial way, through the elaboration of tasks, and an integrative seminar will be developed where the contents of both teaching units will be retaken. It will be addressed in the final work how through the subjects and disciplines it is contributed to the preservation of the cultural heritage of the nation and of the university, in correspondence with the profile of the professional.

General skill system

Students will be able to:

  1. Identify the different classifications of wealth.

  2. Characterize the heritage values of Cuba and the territory.

  3. Appreciate the experiences of Cuba in matters of heritage education.

  4. Value the importance of heritage education for the preservation of the cultural heritage of the university.

  5. Insert heritage education through interdisciplinary relationships in the career curriculum.

General system of values to promote

The theme itself carries a high axiological content, which will help to consolidate the following values.

Social responsability

Patriotism

Dignity

Honesty

Industriousness

Civility

Methodological and organizational guidelines

The program has been designed for students to identify the terms related to the subject. In the theoretical aspect, it encourages a critical approach to problems related to cultural heritage in any of its aspects and the importance of its preservation through heritage education. Methodologically, it favors the development of skills in the field of research and, consequently, independent study and work.

In the development of each of the topics, the teacher, through the use of teaching aids, within them Mobile Learning, part of the potentialities it offers to promote heritage education, as well as promoting debate and the participation of students on the current reality of heritage and its preservation on a global, local and university level. All this process leads to reflection, the exchange of ideas and experiences of these on the subject; altogether, both the teacher and the students would arrive at the construction of knowledge. It will be taught through the modality of meeting class, lectures and practical classes, the use of audiovisual materials and includes the visit to sites of local heritage interest, as well as in the context of the university: cultural squares, monuments, laboratories and other cultural assets of interest, using field work as a method to provide a solution, based on the knowledge acquired, to the preservation of cultural heritage.

Evaluation system

The contents of the program will be systematically evaluated in each of the meetings, through practical activities and independent work directed by the teacher. The final evaluation consists of the delivery and discussion of an integrating seminar on the importance of the subject. For the preparation of the same, students must consult documentary sources in different centers of the city and the university, as well as other materials provided by the professor, the Moodle platform and the study guide of the subject, and establish how from the curriculum of the career and professional profile can contribute to the preservation of the cultural heritage of the nation, the locality and the university.

Basic bibliography

Cuenca-López, JM. (2014). "The role of heritage in educational centers: towards the socialization of heritage". Tejuelo Magazine (19) 76-96.

Cuenca-López, José M.; Martín-Cáceres, M. and Estepa, J. (2020). "Good practices in heritage education. Analysis of the connections between emotions, territory and citizenship". Aula Abierta magazine, 49 (1), 45-54.

Rodríguez Vallejo E (2012). Heritage Education at School. Some theoretical and methodological considerations. Deutschland. Publisher: Académica Española.

Decree No. 118 of the Executive Committee of the Council of Ministers, September 23, 1983. Regulations for the Execution of the Law for the Protection of Cultural Heritage.

Law No. 1 for the Protection of Cultural Heritage of August 16, 1977.

UNESCO (2003). Convention for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage. Retrieved from http://whc.unesco.org/archive/convention-es.pdf

UNESCO (2005). World Heritage in the hands of young people. Teaching materials package for teachers. Paris: United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization.

Further reading

Fontal Merillas, O (2016). "Heritage education: retrospective and prospects for the next decade". Journal of Pedagogical Studies, XLII (2), 415-436.

Discussion

The results obtained in the research show the current state of heritage education in pedagogical careers at the University of Pinar del Río "Hermanos Saíz Montes de Oca" and, in turn, express the need for the subject to occupy space in the formation of the future professional education.

These results coincide with similar studies carried out in Cuba, based on the contributions of Rodríguez et al. (2017) and Aroche et al. (2018), who consider that in the Cuban university environment "there has been no systematic work in favor of an education in and for heritage" (p. 81), a criterion shared by the authors of this study.

The analysis of the main difficulties detected in the research allows asserting that the heritage education process in pedagogical careers at the University of Pinar del Río "Hermanos Saíz Montes de Oca" presents shortcomings in the epistemological and methodological order.

In the epistemological order, the difficulty in conceptualizing the term heritage and its different classifications stands out, as well as the notion of it, with a limited vision prevailing that goes against the holistic vision advocated in current heritage studies. This situation has led to a fragmentation at the time of its treatment from different study disciplines, resulting in a division between heritage elements, cultural, natural and technological.

In this regard, Rodríguez et al. (2017) state that, given the complexity of the subject when it comes to treatment, as a result of the continuous updating process to which heritage and its processes are subjected, it is necessary to establish interdisciplinary relationships and overcome barriers between knowledge as a way of effective treatment of the subject, aspect with which the authors of the study agree.

In the methodological order, the existing curricular and extracurricular gap in courses, programs, methodologies and other proposals from undergraduate, in pedagogical careers of the university itself, is verified.

In the current curricular design of Cuban higher education, designed to promote the Teaching-Learning Process, the acquisition of skills and professional competencies, and the development of values in students, it is appreciated that most of the subjects contemplated in the plans study of the different specialties have potential to address issues related to heritage education.

From this conception, it coincides with the criteria of Alarcón (2016) in that:

Innovation on the part of the university also means systematically updating, at the undergraduate and postgraduate levels, the study plans, the forms of teaching, the evaluation methods, the relationships between students and teachers; incorporate the most advanced and pertinent technologies for educational purposes, among other aspects (p. 11-12).

Resolution No 2/2018. Regulation of Teaching and Methodological Work of Higher Education in its article 1 sustains that:

The training of higher-level professionals is the process that, consciously and on a scientific basis, is developed in higher education institutions to guarantee the comprehensive preparation of university students, which is specified in a solid scientific, technical, humanistic training and high ideological, political, ethical and aesthetic values, in order to achieve revolutionary, cultured, competent, independent and creative professionals, so that they can perform successfully in the various sectors of the economy and society in general (MES, 2018).

Under these assumptions, based on cultural and educational criteria, a comprehensive training based on scientific bases is not conceived then without heritage education being part of the education of students of pedagogical careers. What future education professionals have a duty to educate future generations in appreciation and respect for cultural heritage in all its forms and manifestations. Preserving cultural heritage implies guaranteeing its continuity over time, bearing in mind that some of its manifestations are extremely susceptible and that the development processes themselves can injure until they are permanently lost.

In this sense, the authors consider that the design of pedagogical careers allows for the inclusion of scientific discoveries and contributions in each particular specialty in order to achieve permanent updating. The contents of heritage education enrich the cultural level of the student and must constitute part of the knowledge that they must transmit to their future students, based on the subjects for which they are preparing in their training.

The theoretical systematization carried out in the research allows us to recognize that heritage education in pedagogical careers of the University of Pinar del Río "Hermanos Saíz Montes de Oca" constitutes an expeditious way for a better knowledge, preservation and dissemination of cultural heritage in all its manifestations, including the cultural heritage of the university itself, as well as contributing to the development of values and the strengthening of cultural identity.

The proposed program constitutes a valuable contribution to the integral formation of the student of pedagogical careers, based on a greater knowledge, preservation and dissemination of the cultural heritage of the nation and of the university.

Referencias bibliográficas

Alarcón, R. (2016). Universidad innovadora por un desarrollo humano sostenible: Mirando al 2030. Conferencia inaugural dictada en el X Congreso Internacional de Educación Superior Universidad 2016, La Habana, Cuba. https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/%E2%80%9CUniversidad-innovadora-por-un-desarrollo-humano-al-Ort%C3%ADz/c9785354e17617b555c13adf32935bbbd29ee761Links ]

Aroche, A., Dávila, M., & Acosta, Y. (2018). Espacios universitarios para la educación patrimonial. Revista Congreso, 7(1). http://www.congresouniversidad.cu/revista/index.php/congresouniversidad/index Links ]

CRES. (2018). Declaración de la III Conferencia Regional de Educación Superior para América Latina y el Caribe. Integración y Conocimiento, 7(2), 96-105. https://revistas.unc.edu.ar/index.php/integracionyconocimiento/article/view/2261Links ]

Cuenca, J. M., Martín, M., & Estepa, J. (2020). Buenas prácticas en educación patrimonial. Análisis de las conexiones entre emociones, territorio y ciudadanía. Aula Abierta, 49(1), 45-54. https://doi.org/10.17811/rifie.49.1.2020.45-54 https://reunido.uniovi.es/index.php/AA/article/view/14230 Links ]

Díez Bedmar, Mª. C. (2020). Educación patrimonial, intergeneracionalidad e interseccionalidad desde una perspectiva de género. Experiencia y conclusiones para la formación inicial de educadores y docentes. Investigación en la Escuela, (100), 55-70. DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.12795/IE.2020.i100.05 Links ]

Fontal, O. (2016). Educación patrimonial: Retrospectiva y prospectivas para la próxima década. Estudios pedagógicos (Valdivia), 42(2), 415-436. https://doi.org/10.4067/S0718-07052016000200024. http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_abstract&pid=S0718-07052016000200024&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Links ]

Laffita, I., & Laffita, F. (2017). La educación patrimonial para el desarrollo sostenible en la formación del instructor de arte en Imias. Revista Caribeña de Ciencias Sociales (octubre 2017). En línea: https://www.eumed.net/rev/caribe/2017/10/educacion-patrimonial-arte.html http://hdl.handle.net/0.500.11763/caribe1710educacion-patrimonial-arteLinks ]

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Received: February 25, 2021; Accepted: November 23, 2021

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