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Mendive. Revista de Educación

versión On-line ISSN 1815-7696

Rev. Mendive vol.19 no.4 Pinar del Río oct.-dic. 2021  Epub 10-Dic-2021

 

Review article

The formation of a concept frames, different looks of the same end

Sandra Martínez López1  * 
http://orcid.org/0000-0003-0851-5597

María Magdalena López Rodríguez del Rey2 
http://orcid.org/0000-0001-9049-7409

1Escuela Primaria Dinh Bo Linh, Ciudad de Ho Chi Minh. Viet Nam.

2 Universidad de Cienfuegos "Carlos Rafael Rodríguez". Cuba

ABSTRACT

The search for a concession on the concept of training, its definition as a pedagogy category and the different approaches that, from Philosophy, Sociology, Psychology and Pedagogy are carried out on the subject, constitute the analysis that is illustrated in this article, where, in addition, binding synergies for the development of children, adolescents and young people are established because of the training process. Without forgetting the reference to the different educational actors that, from the school, the family, and the community, focus the process on the internalization of knowledge, norms, modes of action, skills, and values, while the student is assumed as the center of education in the effort to promote their independence, their autonomy, and their active, proactive, and creative insertion in society. The bibliographic evidence that supports the systematization in this study shows the conceptual complexity, as well as the various positions that are assumed in accordance with the intention and scope of the training, by placing it as the center of the educational process and highlighting its importance in the task of training man for his insertion and contribution in more just, responsible and equitable societies; in clear correspondence with its historical and cultural context, of which it must also consciously be the protagonist.

Keywords: Education; human development; training; philosophy; sociology; psychology; pedagogy

Introduction

It is complex to demarcate certain concepts, as words emerge, their meanings are interwoven and their limits are blurred, to the point of being superimposed on each other. When it comes to training, there are different readings given at the end. Its limitation and certain specificity in the pedagogical language, guide its understanding from the professional or technical perspective, on the personal level it transpires as action and result through institutions and educational experiences throughout life and from a macro perspective it is considered As the key to the development of nations, which finds all its pillars in the human factor, it is therefore consensual to place the future of man and therefore the future of nations, as the axis of the formative process.

This article, based on the documentary analysis carried out, aims to regularize the theoretical positions that, from philosophy, pedagogy, psychology and sociology, are assumed to be relevant in the conceptions that are attached to the term training today. The theoretical systematization carried out allows to articulate, base and integrate the referential framework in this study and account for the conceptual complexity, as well as the various positions that are assumed in accordance with the intentionality and scope of the training, by placing it as the center of the educational process.

In one of the meanings provided by the Dictionary of the Royal Spanish Academy of the term, it reads: Action and effect of forming or forming. A priori, the semantic analysis of the word, the result of this duality (act and consequence), gives the word a pedagogical significance, since it alludes to the "educability of the human being" (Venegas, 2004, p. 24) and to the transformation or construction of the subject, in an evident correlation between training and education. Synonymous voices such as: informing, perfecting, training, teaching, instructing, directing, guiding, directing and nurturing, account for the richness of scenarios and the difficulty of conceptualizing training that, in addition, stands as an educational binomial that leads to the individual.

Undoubtedly, the complexity, polysemy and ambiguity of the term (Ducoing Watty, 2005; Lozano, 2014) propitiate the debate around its conceptualization. By considering the breadth of scope, for example, different areas are established: initial, intermediate, higher, continuous, permanent training. Its intention, however, appears hand in hand with various complements such as: technical training, for peace, in values, comprehensive, for citizenship. In any case, it is evident that, in the educational scenario, the incorporation of new synonyms to the expression highlights its contribution to human development, to the point of considering training as the beginning and end of pedagogical action, which has become an essential category of Pedagogy. as Science of Education.

Various authors converge on this idea (Flórez & Vivas, 2007; Lozano, 2014; Barrabia, 2016; Grijalba & Mendoza, 2020), when referring to training as the beginning and end of pedagogy, they allude to the process itself as a set of actions and systemic influences to develop different knowledge, attitudes, values and personal capacities that, in addition, will have a mark on society. Its transforming character is evidenced in the result of the process, as a wish come true and an imperishable end, to the extent of creating possibilities for rediscovery, construction, choice, project and action, which take place in the different contexts in which life takes place, and that involves the different actors and factors that come into play

In fact, when considering training as a process, its understanding as a whole is validated, "it cannot be approached as an isolated entity or lacking interconnections" (Grijalba & Mendoza, 2020, p. 211), to the same extent it is continuous, permanent, and with an indisputable social character. Training is in itself: objective, goal and action, process and result, which are defined at the same time, as a fundamental guideline of education, insofar as the purpose of training as a whole human being and as citizens capable of contributing to building is binding. of a better society. The humanization and development of man, as a result of his own internal growth where knowledge, values, attitudes, behaviors, responsibilities and solid criteria are integrated, constitutes the desired epilogue of the training process.

Correspondingly, the reference to the term "training, is assumed as a judgment criterion" (Flórez & Vivas, 2007), of all pedagogical action, which is only achieved if it contributes to training, empowering and sensitizing man with his reality and with other people through whom he recognizes himself. This category is characterized by the universality, diversity and integration of contents and actions that give direction to the training processes and that are specified in the autonomy, independence, rationality and ethics of the actions. To train man, committed to the historical epoch in which he lives, aware of his own transformation and of his transforming power, is a reference that serves as a general interpretive framework, from which information is given about the relationship and scope that the process should have, both in its conception and in its results (Barrabia, 2016).

The revitalization of the debate around training as a pedagogical category finds other foundations that emphasize its more strategic dimension in terms of the desired end and its complex configuration. Consensual results, its difficult conceptualization, but to the same extent the assertion of the social commitment that is implicit as an objective, the relevance of its impact on the development of the personality, the interconnection between the actors that intervene in the training process and the need to respond to the historical context, give the necessary guidelines that vindicate the relevance of the formation of the new generations with values, attitudes, knowledge, and skills, that promote their participation in societies favorable to political participation, the discrepancy in the desire for improvement and social justice.

At present, it is recognized that, over time, the conception about the term training has not only changed in terms of the definition of the concept, but also in terms of its purpose, content, spaces, moments and the participation of the individual who intervenes in it. Thus, the existence of a complex network of philosophical, sociological, psychological and pedagogical conceptions is explained, which, from educational theory and practice, base training as an intentional, permanent and continuous act of transformations in which an individual, Within the social group in which he is born and develops, he makes for himself and himself a developing personality.

From this threshold, the present research aims to analyze the concept of training, its definition as a pedagogy category and some of the main approaches that exist on the subject from Philosophy, Sociology, Psychology and Pedagogy.

To overcome the objective proposed in the research, methods of the theoretical level and the empirical level were applied that allowed to obtain important results, all with the dialectical-materialist method as a generalizer that allowed us to find the links between all. As theoretical methods, the logical history was applied for the search, recovery and interpretation of the subject under study. And its theoretical systematization through an extensive documentary review, which was effectively specified through the methods of analysis and synthesis.

Development

From the Philosophy of education, the formation is anchored in the nature of the human being, imperfect, unfinished with possibilities to be molded, formed educated; However, "it is not intended that man act well, but rather that he is capable of doing it" (Peñacoba, 2013, p. 158). It assumes that the student goes through a cultural experience from which, objectivizes the transition from the singular to the universal, recognizes becoming as an active subject, with will and capacity for transformation, since the path of training implies multiple encounters and reencounters with himself, to overcome the naturalness with which one comes to life to actively enter the world and return to himself, become a creator of culture and promoter of development.

Therefore, it assumes the philosophy that training focuses on the subject, incorporates in this process all life experiences, and induces questioning as an incentive in the search for personal development, while promoting not only the construction of culture and one's own identity but also a healthy and responsible way of coexistence, based on values, feelings and actions.

Now, it is interesting in this article to note that to the same extent that it is intended to train in talent (learn to know, learn to do) and virtue (learn to live together, learn to be) it is urgent to promote freedom, true opinion, fair and timely criticism, recognition of the relevance of personal roles and their imprint on world development. A new power affects these times, globalization and its economic empire, have imposed new borders that do not agree precisely with the land, air or maritime limitations of the countries and that they treasure as pillars for their empowerment, excessive consumption, which affects so much humanity as well as the planet, therefore it must be formed in the conscience of the measured expense, in the morality of the equitable, in the possibility of socially balancing the individual good with the good of the whole (Cortina, 2019).

In this process, the relationship that exists between education as a means and the implications of the family, the school and the community as a training space is highlighted. It is in this network of interactions that influences take place so that students take on the world, place themselves in it and unfold as a person in a universal sense, in which they reproduce, make their own and contribute to culture and sustained progress, according to the context to which they belong and the historical moment in which they live. Therefore, its main task is to train in ethical and civic values, promote dignified citizens in their feelings and in their actions, capable of generating equitable economies that guarantee peace and social justice in correspondence with sustainable development and caring for the planet, basic demands of our civilization.

Training that strengthens and prepares for social life

The marked social character of education is based on the need to form integral citizens who enact their best actions in the societies to which they belong. In this sense, the development of individuals and the interrelationships that are established are shaping the social structures that give meaning and enhance the advancement of countries. A clear balance between powers and political, economic and social schemes guarantee the state of rights, opportunities and a fair and just quality of life as the highest aspiration of citizens anywhere in the world. Therefore, guaranteeing a model of individuals for societies with their own characteristics that respond to their time is part of the task in training that is currently interpreted from the sociology of education.

Consequently, the ideal formation to which man must arrive is one that allows him to assume his responsibility with the demands of his time. Even so, this only becomes possible to the extent that "the forming subject, overcomes the immediacy of his active consciousness and achieves reason, understood as a synthesis of consciousness and singular self-consciousness ... contradictory and simultaneously, as universal self-consciousness (the self-recognized in us" (Ducoing Watty, 2005, p.81). In this sense, from a very early age, guidelines for discipline, behaviors and morality are learned, of family origin at first, to later be complemented by the school and the community in a process of formative socialization where the modes of action are achieved. individual and collective that found the pillars of society.

From the Sociology of Education, the importance of the family in the formation of man is expanded and founded. This, as the primary cell of society, is in charge of making the world and its structures understood; the fundamental roles of life, the internalization of affects, norms and essential cognitive elements (Ortiz, et al., 2017), it is in this primary nucleus where the first social representations and the first educational experiences that precede school are established. The truth is that these knowledges are assumed naturally by children, in correspondence with the cultural projection, ideals, principles, beliefs, values and social behaviors that are assumed according to the family model.

However, it is legitimated that, together with the family, the school stands as the largest setting for training and social interrelations from an early age. Schoolchildren begin to know and learn rules, regulations and behaviors (García-Lastra, 2013), based on specific subjects that will help children, adolescents and young people to understand the world and prepare to function in life. In this endeavor, the link with other spaces outside the parental affections is also made viable, in which the insertion of the individual in society is promoted, establishing a system of relationships (between students, teachers, managers and parents) that will gradually become more common. in each one, until managing to configure their personality.

Of course, other formative influences take place in the community, where other learnings, feelings and actions are also elicited that are shaping the personal distinctive. This is the case, for example, of the first traces of friendship that find their origin in neighborhood socialization through group activities. The game, the dialogue, the daily actions and the community exchanges in general favor diversity, the acceptance of what is different and the valuation of dissimilar references. In this sense, the formation of the socio-affective sphere of the personality occupies a fundamental place, recognizing the value that is attributed to tolerance, empathy, generosity, solidarity, the sense of belonging and unity, in interactions social, manifest throughout life.

In this order Castells (2014), notices the contribution that the virtual and technological community has, as a new social scenario, to the training process throughout life. Technological advances and their irruption in daily life have caused a transformation in human behavior worldwide, networks are revealed in new social relationships and modes of action. It is there where figures, trends and symbols are discovered that act as references to follow, the presentation of content in different formats, communications and immediate interactions, leave their mark on the formation and behavior of individuals in life, which from This perspective achieves the privilege of ubiquity and at the same time they face the need to weigh what is really important in a network of information and news that is excessive and ephemeral.

In any case, a consensus can be seen in affirming that socialization, as an essentially educational process, must be shared by the school, the family and the community in diverse contexts. The social function of education should be aimed at achieving social cohesion, a sense of belonging, the construction of identity, the configuration of personality, and the training of children, adolescents and young people for the exercise of future roles, as critical citizens, of their own thinking, with rights to the full exercise of their power as transforming agents. It is evident that from this perspective and when highlighting the social function of education in general, the development of children, adolescents and young people should be promoted in the certainty of belonging to a society and making their contribution to it.

Talking about personal development

Indeed, the development of children, adolescents and young people as a result of the training process that incorporates different educational actors from school, the family and the community is focused on the internalization of knowledge, norms, modes of action, skills and values that, from constructivism, assumes the student as the center of education in the effort to promote their independence, their autonomy and their active, proactive and creative insertion in society. In this perseverance, the identity, morality, judgment criteria and in general the personality traits of each individual are established until they form the adult who, fully aware of their rights and duties, will exercise their citizen role in correspondence with reality. social life in which you live.

From psychological references, Martínez (2014); Solovieva & Quintanar (2017); Terán (2018), assume that training is inherent to the human being, since it begins and ends with life. Each stage or period of personal development is marked by anatomical and physiological differences, and psychic particularities, from which diversity and the rate of improvement are established according to the peculiarities of the individual activity of each subject. Therefore, part of the training is constituted in the interpretation and meanings that each child, adolescent or young person, in their growth, gives external stimuli in their own configuration of the reality in which they live, a necessary condition for the disposition of the process's psychological aspects of the personality, according to the biopsychosocial stages and the social and cultural environment in which it participates.

In this framework, it is recurrent to ensure that the training process takes place in practical, gnoseological, evaluative, axiological and communicative activity, as a specifically human way of training. Therefore, when relating to the world, man reproduces and transforms the environment in a creative way and, in this process, mediated by educational action, the development of intellectual functions occurs as a result of the individual exegesis of reality. From this argument, it is necessary to highlight the value of the various changes and dispositions for self-transformation that originates in children, adolescents and young people, understanding that "the child can reflect on the objects with which he interacts, on the orientation he needs or you already have and from the results of your own actions. This same reflection allows us to accept our own mistakes and to undertake verification and correction strategies". (Solovieva & Quintanar, 2017, p. 368)

Thus, in activity, in communication with adults and peers (socialization processes), through actions that, in a general sense, go from the external (material, with objects), to the verbal (internal and external language) and later to the internal plane (mental), is that the individual comes to appropriate the historical-social experience of humanity and contributes to enrich it, while reaching the levels of biopsychosocial development that configure their personality. It is important then, to understand that: "The way in which the child conceives the social world is not a linear and simple process", on the contrary, it is made more complex by the various influences included in the training act, it is then that each child perform "an active and complex process of construction in the knowledge of their social environment. appropriating values, ideals, norms and beliefs of the cultural environment". (Panzera & Slobinsky, 2007, p. 465)

The responsibility for a better future

An analysis from the pedagogical point of view of the concept of training emphasizes the institutionalization of the process through schools. It is there where the training process is legitimized and made viable according to the educational models that are intended, the results in terms of knowledge, skills, attitudes and values that are achieved by the students are endorsed and certified. And it is that the school, as a socio-educational setting, assigns the intention to the training project, where, according to the stages of biopsychosocial development of the school, the educational experience is organized and sequenced. For this, an arbitration is developed that results in the selection of contents, purposes, training activities that will characterize the school curriculum (Lozano, 20014; Grijalba & Mendoza, 2020).

It is thus explained that training in school is delimited by objectives, content, methods and activities; understood and structured as necessary elements that provide schoolchildren with the tools and resources that they will apply throughout their lives, especially in relation to access to a certain culture and insertion into social practice. Then, the school, as a training institution, responds to the historical moment and the generational projection that society needs (Casasola, 2020). In this regard, it is even specified that managers, teachers and educators all assume that "education is one, praxis ... a deliberate process that aims at the formation of a subject ... who forms himself ... as a result of his activity and effort ... previous learning ... enculturation and socialization processes". (Yurén, 2005, p. 30)

Despite being unavoidable to establish a certain relationship between the essential characteristics of age groups, and the criteria for determining the objectives and contents that distinguish each formative stage, it is necessary to make the determinants of development more flexible and to attend to individuality in the face of generalizations delimited by stages and periods that are assumed as common references to establish grades, cycles and school stages. Resolving this problem implies recognizing that it is the interconnections that delineate the relevance of the training process and those that allow graduating the changes that will mark the development of the personality, with an individual, unique and unrepeatable bias.

This approach should be taken into account when conceiving the pedagogical and didactic decisions of the training activity in the school context, without forgetting that not only are children, adolescents and young people "critically engaged, but they are required to the same extent" expand the capacity of the imagination to think in another way and, consequently, act in another way, maintain a responsible power, and imagine the unimaginable "(Giroux, 2019, p. 155). The relationship between the stages of formation and development of the personality are mediated by the appropriation or meaningful assimilation that is given to the intentional influences that take place in the process and that will mark the outcome of the student's learning and their future. act within society.

Then, training as a process emphasizes the intentional, structured and systematic external influence that, as a manifestation of the result, will inform about development, understood as the reconstruction and reorganization of cognitive, linguistic, social and affective processes. These constitute the basis for setting higher objectives in the projection and execution of the formative influences that take place both in the family, at school and at the social level. Thus, the development stages are delineated and the synergies underlying them are revealed.

The first stage that is identified as sensoperceptive; it is where the relationship with the world is established. Through sensations, information is received from the outside world that is processed through the perception of this stimulus and that originates a certain response, from which it is possible to make a subjective representation of the real world (Agudelo, Pulgarín, & Tabares, 2017).

The second, oriented to the learning of literacy, presupposes that the student has access to the concepts, theories, ideas and new knowledge, which are transmitted, without forgetting that factors such as: perception, memory, communication intervene in the development of the process, metacognition, inferential capacity, and consciousness (Espinoza, 2016).

The third stage, linked to the stimulation and development of rationality and scientific thought, contributes to the formation of critical and creative individuals and the values that are built individually, involve a network of related precepts, norms, beliefs and actions with the judgments of truth, freedom, criteria, behaviors, idiosyncrasies and principles of a certain culture (Martínez, 2014)

The transition from one to another becomes an imperative for the design and development of educational activities, guided by purposes that mark the consequent graduation of training activities, whose added value is associated with the possibilities of educability that the human being has to throughout life. Consequently, each stage of the school cycle is determined by objectives and training content in relation to the projection promoted by society.

Conclusions

Training as the beginning and end of pedagogical action is assumed by the educational community as a complex and totalizing process that involves a network of educational actions and influences contributed by the family, the school and the community in a longing that lasts. Precisely its transcendence results in the task of training man for his insertion and contribution in more just, responsible and equitable societies; in clear correspondence with its historical and cultural context, of which it must also consciously be the protagonist. To train for the exercise of a citizenship that respects rights and duties and demands them in a critical and responsible way, which is internalized as essential within the progress and sustainable global development, which assumes its own human growth, as the growth of humanity, must constitute the orientation, the objective, the action and the result of the training process as an education center.

From Philosophy, sociology, psychology and pedagogy, the integral development of man is reinforced through formative action as the highest aspiration of education. With a marked social character, the formation of the human being is understood, from the endowment of knowledge, attitudes, skills and values where various educational actors intervene in a planned, dosed and intentional way and considering the age ranges in personal development, and the citizen models that are required, assume the formation of the new generations in accordance with the demands and needs of our civilization.

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Received: February 03, 2021; Accepted: September 23, 2021

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