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Mendive. Revista de Educación

versión On-line ISSN 1815-7696

Rev. Mendive vol.22 no.1 Pinar del Río ene.-mar. 2024  Epub 10-Mar-2024


Original article

Physical activity in relation to social interaction skills in students with intellectual disabilities

0000-0002-7689-6224Iris Valdés Valdés1  *  , 0000-0003-0318-0628Olivia García Reyes1 

1Universidad de Pinar del Río "Hermanos Saíz Montes de Oca". Cuba


Physical activity is a right of every human being, it affects the strengthening of conditions for work; transformation of nature; the struggle and preservation of peace; in the physical-functional development of the individual and the formation of character; ethical, moral and volitional qualities in the individual and social. The research aims to assess the possibilities of physical activity to favor social skills in students with intellectual disabilities, by contributing to the promotion of a healthy generation, physically prepared according to their potentialities, their development needs corrective work and/or compensatory that improves and increases the possibilities of movements, towards the development of social relations in the contexts where it develops; For its development, theoretical, empirical and mathematical statistical methods were used, which made it possible to verify the declared scientific problem from the characterization of the selected sample, from the determination of the dimensions and indicators that allowed arriving at regularities, a great importance is attributed to it. educational value by exploring the environment and developing communicative relationships, as well as, they can build topological, temporal and spatial notions in different situations of movement, it also places the student with intellectual disability in situations of interaction with others, and requires him to seek resources or help to solve the activity, this favors relationships with others and achieve independent action.

Key words: social interaction skills; intellectual disability; physical activity


Social relationships impact the education of people with special educational needs, particularly in children, adolescents and young people with intellectual disabilities, who, given the limitations they present at the biopsychosocial level, require corrective-compensatory work, aimed at a preparation for independent adult life that allows them to interact socially appropriately.

Research on the education of children, adolescents and young people with intellectual disabilities at the international level is mainly located in countries such as: Spain, Germany, the United States, Finland and Russia, among others. Especially revealing are the studies carried out since 1876 by the American Association on Mental Retardation (AAMR), today the American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities (AAIDD), which by defining, diagnosing and characterizing mental retardation as an intellectual disability makes emphasis on the development of conceptual, social and practical skills that are very useful for the daily and adult lives of these people.

The topic of social interaction skills has been addressed in the work of authors such as: Verdugo, MA (1990-1997); Monjas, M.I. (1993); Goldstein, A. (1998); Echeita, G. (1994-2014); among others, where it is linked to specific programs, psychotherapeutic treatments and the development of autonomy in people with disabilities.

In Cuba, research has been carried out that addresses with greater intentionality the process of social interaction of students with intellectual disabilities, as is the case of the studies by Pérez (2004); De la Peña (2006); Álvarez (2007); Cross (2009); Serra (2014); Valdes et al. (2015) and Fuentes, V. (2021), which refer to the development of social interaction skills as one of the dimensions of preparation for life of students with intellectual disabilities, associated with raising their self-esteem and the process teaching-learning.

Physical culture generates benefits for students with intellectual disabilities, from active lifestyles, increased resistance and fatigue, increased capacity for physical and mental work, toned muscles and increased strength, improved the functioning of the joints and contributes to improving the skills to interact with others.

It also has great value not only for the improvement of health, but also for the prevention and rehabilitation of the student, applying exercises with prophylactic objectives, restoration of health, work capacity and prevention of the consequences of the processes. pathological, as well as to promote social interaction skills.

There are various activities that can be carried out with students with intellectual disabilities, among which are: teaching activities in the school environment or in others, for training purposes; In teaching, the transformation of motor behaviors is deepened, in relation to the body, movement, nature and health; sports practice; the use of free time and the maintenance of health.

Guerra, Laborit (2013) recommend that in the case of students with intellectual disabilities, activities should be carried out that prepare them for different activities carried out in institutions, including deepening the knowledge of motor behavior, with the purpose of assume attitudes, values and norms in relation to their own body and with respect to social relationships.

It can be seen that in students with intellectual disabilities, their relationship with their environment is established through physical activity, which is projected in their corporal and spiritual culture; These processes have a physical-educational nature.

To achieve physical culture in students with intellectual disabilities, it is necessary, as López (2021) states: " be disciplined and enjoy their effort." These two aspects are of great value to correct and/or compensate, through physical activity, the disability they may have. It must be taken into account that each learner may have a different level of development, corresponding to the degree of intellectual disability they have and, in relation to this, the environment that is presented to them and the response that is expected of them must be, from the variability in the development of each one; Therefore, physical activity contributes to their development by constantly interacting with others.

Of great value for the development of physical activity based on the development of social interaction skills is that institutions for students with intellectual disabilities become active centers for physical activities and sports, given the interactivity they will have. with other people, whether known or unknown, but who favor acting independently and forces them to look for verbal or non-verbal resources to make themselves understood by others.

The elements addressed by López (2021) must be taken into account, which suggests that there must be specialists in the development of physical education, personnel specialized in nutrition, psychological support, medical service specialized in sports, development and implementation of processes. that provide physical and mental strength in the face of adversity, satisfaction through the game of the winning mentality, as well as observers who can satisfy the areas of opportunity, encourage the practice of sport in our environment, always have words of encouragement prepared in situations difficult.

According to Valdés, Guerra & Camargo (2020), the development of social interaction skills promotes better inclusion, both in the educational and social spheres; Therefore, it implies perfecting educational practice, so that it promotes greater justice and equality in the care of people with special educational needs who are fit and prepared to: assume life independently, face the demands of society, possess personal autonomy, adequate appearance, self-care skills, positive attitudes towards work, control over their emotions, social relationships and the ability to make decisions about their own life, where physical activity is of great value to achieve preparation for life and an independence according to their possibilities.

Materials and methods

The study was carried out during 2021 in the province of Pinar del Río, in the municipality of Viñales, in the popular council of Puerto Esperanza and worked with different sample groups.

Sample group I was made up of six sixth grade students with intellectual disabilities from the "Santos Cruz" special school, located in the Popular Council of Puerto Esperanza, in the municipality of Viñales.

Tuition Age Sex Place of residence 10 11 Male Female Rural Urban 6 2 4 4 2 2 4

Sample group II was made up of two teachers who work with students with intellectual disabilities in the sixth grade of the "Santos Cruz" special school, located in the Popular Council of Puerto Esperanza, in the municipality of Viñales.

Sample group III was made up of two directors (a director and a cycle coordinator) of the "Santos Cruz" special school, located in the Popular Council of Puerto Esperanza, in the municipality of Viñales.

Total directors Professional qualification Years of experience Graduate Master 5-10 11-19 20-25 2 1 1 2 % 50,0 50,0 100

In the diagnostic study carried out, the dimensions and indicators were determined. The following epistemological procedures were used: theoretical analysis of the development of social interaction skills of students with intellectual disabilities in physical activities, assessment of dimensions of the development of social interaction skills of students with intellectual disabilities previously proposed by other authors and precision of the Dimension selection criteria.

The particularities of the development of social interaction skills in physical activity, socialization with specialists to assess the objectivity of the dimensions and indicators developed, assessment of the criteria and suggestions issued by the specialists were taken into account.

The study on the development of social interaction skills in physical activity contributed to a better understanding of the particularities that are inherent to it and laid the foundations for the theoretical clarifications presented, on which the proposal of dimensions and indicators is based.

Physical activity in the school attended by students with intellectual disabilities is fundamentally based on Physical Education programs, complementary and extracurricular activities. The objective of including these in the teaching schedule is because they are ideal moments to teach students how to adopt and maintain a healthy and active lifestyle that will be reflected in having a stable and positive personality; in addition to helping new generations to be physically active after academic life. Everything will be reflected in the quality and quantity of years to live.

In this research, complementary and extracurricular activities are used to appreciate the relationship between social interaction skills and physical activity.

To carry out the diagnostic study, the dialectical-materialist approach was taken as the basis of analysis, using different research methods and techniques, which served as support for the application of each of them. The causal and functional relationships that interact in the object of study were revealed and its dynamics were penetrated to discover the links established in its functioning.

Among the empirical level methods, the following were used: document review, to analyze how different methodological and normative documents conceive the development of social interaction skills of students with intellectual disabilities in sixth grade in physical activity; interviews with teachers, to know their criteria on the development of social interaction skills in students with intellectual disabilities and their influence on preparation for life, as well as the value of physical activity in their development; observation of complementary and extra-teaching activities , to verify how physical activity contributes to the development of social interaction skills of students with intellectual disabilities.

To process the information collected during the research, descriptive statistics were used for the tabulation of the data, the construction of distribution tables of absolute and percentage frequencies, and the construction of graphs.


The analysis of the results of the diagnosis of the development of social interaction skills of students with intellectual disabilities in physical activity was carried out with the assessments made by each of the members of the sample groups, based on the dimensions and indicators ; For this purpose, descriptive statistics were used, supported by the preparation of tables and graphs.

An analysis of the results obtained by each member of the sample groups was carried out and methodological triangulation was carried out with oral and visual sources (documentary analysis, interviews with teachers, observation of complementary and extra-teaching activities ), which allowed us to delve deeper into the results. data from the different instruments to determine the initial state of the variable, its dimensions and indicators.

The level indicator in the adequate and beneficial use of leisure and free time is rated as not very adequate, which shows that teachers do not always carry out complementary and extra-teaching activities with the intention of promoting social interaction skills through physical activity; It has been shown that students with intellectual disabilities do not always interact with other people in the physical activities they carry out. Additionally, they do not always participate in physical activities for fear that they may be mistreated or injured; just as they do not always demonstrate appropriate modes of action, taking into account the place where it takes place.

It can be assessed that the actions to contribute to the development of social interaction skills are not carried out with the necessary comprehensiveness, since they are not carried out with a corrective-compensatory-developmental nature. All of this is due to the organization, planning and execution of physical activities for these students.

Students with intellectual disabilities do not always demonstrate appropriate civic behavior and coexistence, as they are not systematic in greeting, saying goodbye, helping other people, protecting and caring for the Environment, elements to take into account when carrying out physical activities.

When evaluating the level indicator of the acquisition of the skills necessary to maintain conversations with other people, it is assessed as inadequate: learners only respond to questions asked by adults, although they establish conversations with their friends in the classroom and the neighborhood; Sometimes they do not use expressions of courtesy and good manners; They do not always show stability in making verbal expression correspond to non-verbal expression. The above is given because teachers do not know the social interaction skills that they must work with their students to ensure that they interact with others in the physical activities they carry out.

Furthermore, in the normative and methodological documents that must be used in physical activities with students, activities that favor the development of social skills are not prioritized.

When evaluating the mastery dimension of cognitive elements (Table 1) for the development of social interaction skills of students with intellectual disabilities from physical activity, it is assessed as not very adequate. This is because teachers do not take into account the possibilities from the preparation of the activities, which is characterized by the prior preparation of the activities and the teacher's self-preparation ; Furthermore, it has an individual and collective character where they synthesize the ways and means with which the objectives of said activity will be met and the development of social interaction skills and its relationship with physical activity as an element that enhances its development.

Table 1 - Results of the initial diagnosis in dimension one 

ONE 50.0 50.0
TWO 66.6 33.3

Next, the assessment of the indicators corresponding to dimension two (Table 2), procedural, is carried out.

When evaluating the indicator "assumes appropriate gestures", they classify it as not very appropriate; Schoolchildren do not always use the motor skills of the body or any of its parts, the spatial and temporal organization of communicators and visual communication.

The indicator "demonstration during the activity of positive attitudes related to discipline and responsibility" is considered inadequate; This is revealed in that sometimes they appear inhibited when faced with an activity, when trying to insert them into activities they isolate themselves, they do not show understanding of responsibilities.

In the indicator "demonstration of appropriate attitudes in their independent social interaction", it was considered not very appropriate, which is justified by the fact that schoolchildren do not always establish relationships independently, they generally rely on the teacher and parents to do so.

The indicator "demonstration of respect and admiration for adults" is considered adequate; but, although it is located in this category, there is still insufficiency on the part of the schoolchildren, which are fundamentally based on the activities that are carried out.

Table 2 - Results of the initial diagnosis in dimension two 

ONE 83.3 16.6
TWO 33.3 50,0 16.6
THREE 16.6 50,0 33.3
FOUR 83.3 16.6

When summarizing the results, regularities were detected, among which are: the activities carried out do not always offer the possibilities for students with intellectual disabilities to interact in the contexts where they are developed, in the preparation and execution of the activities there is insufficient treatment of social interaction skills offered by the teacher; Furthermore, the lack of correspondence between verbal and non-verbal expression is insufficient in students with intellectual disabilities, which means that adequate communication is not always appreciated in physical activities, which hinders the development of social interaction skills. .

In the normative and methodological documents, activities that are oriented towards social interaction skills and their relationship with physical activity do not appear. Students with intellectual disabilities do not always establish relationships independently and the modeling of activities carried out by the teacher in the classroom is insufficient so that they can later extrapolate what they have learned to situations that are presented to them in the different contexts where they interact, where physical activity plays an essential role.

Guerra, Acudovich (2014) propose that it is of great value for the work that must be carried out in institutions for students with intellectual disabilities to promote their physical development, so that it contributes to the organization, planning and execution of the sporting events that take place. and develop social interaction skills by interacting with others.


Physical activity favors social relationships based on the interactions established during its performance, following the criteria of Valdés et al. (2015), López (2021). For the materialization of physical culture, didactic applications are suggested for students with intellectual disabilities that promote social interaction skills.

Activities that can be carried out, where the relationship between social interaction skills and physical activity is evident:

  • Choose physical activities according to the level of individual and collective development that are affordable and constitute success in their lives.

  • Carry out activities and/or physical tasks according to your possibilities.

  • Orally express the tasks or actions to be carried out during physical activity, whether individual, group or using levels of help for their completion.

  • Use aids, teaching resources, a variety of media to carry out all activities.

  • Carry out physical activities so that all students participate; The individual differences of each one must be taken into account.

  • Prevent feelings of guilt in the face of failure and let them know the social and practical value of their effort.

  • Use multisensory activation as a basis for communication.

  • Use games as a facilitating instrument for integration with society.

For teachers to interact successfully with students with intellectual disabilities, they must know the effects of physical activity on muscle tone, posture and correct movements, as well as ensuring prior conditions such as breathing and general physical condition.

Physical activities promote social interaction skills, by creating situations that challenge the way they feel, think and act; This process offers the possibility that they can discover the contradictions between what is said, what is experienced and what is seen in practice.

According to researchers Valdés, Miranda, Fuentes (2021), "social interaction skills must be formed and developed in students with intellectual disabilities, in their strategic sense"; from the earliest ages, so that they become tools for compensating the insufficiencies that they present in their cognitive activity and, with this, cause a progressive improvement in their functioning, not only in the intellectual order but in general.

Social interaction skills are acquired through learning, the context in which one learns, and accumulated experiences. No child is born knowing how to properly relate to his or her peers; it is throughout the process of natural socialization in the family, at school and in the community that those skills are learned that allow him or her to interact effectively and satisfactorily with others.

Social interaction skills have verbal and non-verbal, emotional and affective (anxiety and joy), cognitive (knowledge, social attributions) components and offer the possibility for students with intellectual disabilities to do, feel, say and think. Social interaction skills are specific responses to specific situations that may arise while carrying out a sporting activity.

The effectiveness of social behavior depends on the specific context of interaction and the parameters of the specific situation. An interpersonal behavior may or may not be skillful depending on the people involved (age, sex, objective, interests) and the situation in which it takes place (class, park, church, nightclub, home, etc.).

Social norms vary and are determined by situational and cultural factors. Social interaction skills are situated in different contexts, the interaction always occurs with other people (peers or adults), which means that more than one person is involved.

According to Gómez (2019), it is necessary to develop methodological actions to promote physical activity and adapted physical education. They are considered of great value to promote social interaction skills, among which are: the activities must be selected according to the level of development of the group and in relation to the psychomotor characteristics of the student; develop basic motor skills and physical abilities, in accordance with their motor possibilities; carry out previous demonstrations of what is asked to be done; start teaching based on previous experiences (experiences, manipulative, conceptual and movement); provide confidence to reinforce forms of socialization; use clear, simple language. For a good transmission of information, the game or recreational activity will have to be presented with few decisions to be made. Considerable time will have to be allowed to think about the answer and it is best if it involves a single decision/response for each situation.

The proposed actions allow social interaction skills to be acquired through the combination of the development and learning process. Throughout life we learn to be a certain way, so that the responses that a subject emits in an interpersonal situation depend on what they have learned in their previous interactions in different contexts.

The development of social interaction skills of students with intellectual disabilities should not be a spontaneous learning process, it should be stimulated in a formal way, through properly incorporated activities. It follows that the timely use of them is only possible if the student appropriates a culture; Through learning you will achieve greater development of your potential to organize and process information, regardless of limitations in intellectual functioning.

It is important to note that social interaction skills are learned and developed; and they, like every dimension of human development, evolve over time. This is why it is not possible to teach or develop them all at once, but, like intellectual skills, they require continuous stimulation that allows them to evolve to stages of greater development.

Teachers in physical activities should never make homogeneous groups, not even in cases where prior selective processes are involved. Learners should never be labeled or classified as bad and good, those who learn and those who don't, those who make the most progress and those who make the least, those who complete the task faster and those who take the longest; Therefore, it is necessary to know the particularities and needs of each student in order to know what educational response we are going to offer, what they need, to be able to teach them, educate them, and develop them as they demand.

If the teacher's response is positive, if from the first moment they have the conviction that everyone can learn, remain in the educational system, develop and achieve success, if they understand their direct responsibility in the personal growth of each of them and decide to face the challenge, then an important first step towards inclusion will be guaranteed.

Mutaner (2020) states: "the school is the place where students come to work together to learn, collaborating mutually and to enjoy the experiences offered, as if it were a productive adventure in which everyone can learn"; Therefore, in physical activity and its relationship with social interaction skills there must be equality of opportunities, which has to do with the response to diversity, with the compensation of social inequalities, with attention to special educational needs. and with the connection with the different contexts where the school develops, to the extent that the implementation of the same principles is required for everyone because being different is something common.

Indeed, the fundamental emphasis must be placed so that the student assimilates the modes of action necessary to independently appropriate the knowledge that he will later require in his professional work and in his journey through life and that will help him establish adequate social relationships. One of the aspects that requires guidance in the education of the human being is social relationships, since in each of the things he does there is a component of relationships with others, which determines, to a large extent, (facilitates or hinders) personal development and the search for happiness.

A relationship can be established between physical activities and social skills, taking into account that physical activity and sports contribute to overcoming emotional factors, such as fear or distrust. All of this helps to better confront the conflicts of daily life; promotes social and educational equality in physical activities; promotes, through educational practices, the inclusion of all learners, ensuring individualized attention and respect for diversity, to use movement as a cognitive instrument to know oneself, to explore and structure their immediate environment, to structure various forms of communication interpersonal and develop attitudes of respect, recognition and acceptance towards people with a certain disability.

Physical activities and social interaction skills are considered to have great educational value due to the interactive possibilities with the environment and the relationships that favor relationships with objects, the environment, with other people and with oneself.

Social interaction skills are developed in the physical activity of schoolchildren with intellectual disabilities by participating in recreational, cultural and sports activities where they are the protagonist. In addition, it contributes to creating learning situations with family members (grandparents, siblings, parents, among others); to implement spaces where the student narrates situations that have arisen in school, community or in another context; to allow the student to communicate, so that he uses both verbal and extraverbal expression; to stimulate any progress they have in the development of interaction skills and physical activities and to create play groups with other children in the community, giving them active participation.

According to Camargo (2021): "play is the quintessential activity of childhood. Through it, boys and girls relate to the world around them and acquire the knowledge that will allow them to adapt to their environment." It can be said that play is a preparation for adult life; That is why it is of great value in physical activities to take advantage of their potential to promote interactions between participants, because this is how they show their feelings, motivations, learn, explore and interact with their environment.

Valdivia, Farias, Espoz (2020) state: "the game is an intrinsically motivating activity, which facilitates the natural approach to the practice of physical activity"; This favors the development of students with intellectual disabilities for adult life.

Different activities or physical exercises can be carried out with students with intellectual disabilities that promote social interaction skills. There is no doubt that these children, in these cases, are happier, healthier and perform better in the teaching-learning process by learning to follow rules and create habits; perfect social interaction skills in the relationships they establish, which allows socialization; by deviating from a sedentary lifestyle by reducing time in front of television, tablets or cell phones. This also enables better growth of the bones and muscles of the body, sleep better, perfect fine and gross motor skills, and improve self-esteem; all because exercise raises your self-perception, makes you value yourself more, increases family harmony through fun, shares experiences and helps you lead a healthy life.

After having carried out the previous analysis of the possibilities of physical activity in students with intellectual disabilities, it was possible to conclude that their psychological development is determined by the appropriation of the different forms of social experience at different moments of development, which begins at first in the family and later in school and society. Therefore, physical activity is a true process of interaction between the teacher-school, school-school and school-group, school-family, school-community. This relationship facilitates the understanding of the need to communicate, if its sociocultural reality is taken into account.

Being consistent with the criteria of Monjas (1993), there is a relationship with social interaction skills in childhood and adult life; This is why it is necessary to address the basic skills in learners with intellectual disabilities that can be worked on during physical activity: attitudinal (smiling and laughing, greeting, introductions, favors, courtesy and kindness); to make friends (reinforce others, join the game, help, cooperate and share); conversational (start, maintain, end, join the conversation of others, group conversation); related to feelings, emotions and opinions (positive self-affirmation, expressing emotions, receiving emotions, defending one's own rights and opinions); relationship with adults (courtesy with the adult, talking to the adult, requests to the adult).

According to Guerra's (2018) criteria, learning social interaction skills for any human being is easy; However, students with intellectual disabilities, given the improvement in cognitive processes and intellectual functioning, require resources, support and help to achieve their learning and physical activity is considered a favorable time to achieve this.

The stimulation of skills for social interaction and physical activity perfects the language uses of learners, allows them to improve their system of social relationships and, with this, favorably promotes the socio-affective development of the child and the comprehensive formation of their personality. Likewise, it develops attitudes of respect, equal opportunities for everyone according to their possibilities, increased motor development and especially language, and enhances the neuromuscular and sensory areas; Through the game a healthy, happy and dynamic atmosphere is created.

The movements that students perform during physical activities serve as a basis for the subjects of the curriculum, in addition to contributing to the formation of habits and skills. Physical activity contributes to the organization of the hygienic regime of study activity, work, and lifestyle.

Referencias bibliográficas

Camargo, B.P. (2021) Desarrollo de habilidades de interacción social y escolar a través del juego, en los estudiantes de la Escuela Rural Tanacuta del municipio del Cerrito Santander. Especialización en Pedagogía de la lúdica (977). Bogotá. Colombia. http://hdl.handle/11371/4622 Links ]

Gómez, A. (2019) Acciones metodológicas para contribuir al proceso de Educación Física inclusiva: Una aproximación al tema. Mendive. Revista de Educación, 17(1), ISSN-e 1815-7696 [ Links ]

Guerra, S. (2018) Los estudiantes con necesidades educativas especiales. Recursos y apoyos para su atención educativa. Revista electrónica en Educación y pedagogía, 2(2), 51-66. ]

Guerra, S., Acudovich, S. (2014) Interpretación biopsicosocial de la atención educativa a niños, adolescentes y jóvenes con retraso mental. Actualidad de la atención a los niños y adolescentes con necesidades educativas especiales. La Habana: Editorial Pueblo y Educación. [ Links ]

Guerra, S., Laborit, D. (2013) Necesidad del perfeccionamiento de la educación de escolares con retraso mental en las condiciones actuales del desarrollo educacional. Sobre el perfeccionamiento de la Educación Especial. La Habana: Editorial Pueblo y Educación [ Links ]

López, JA. (2021) Semillero deportivo. Primer Congreso Internacional Ciencias de la Salud y el Deporte. Méjico [ Links ]

Monjas, MI. (1993) Programa de enseñanza de habilidades de interacción social (PEHIS) para niños y adolescentes. Editorial CEPE. España. Links ]

Mutaner, JJ. (2020). La igualdad de oportunidades en la escuela de la diversidad. Universitate IIIes Balears. [ Links ]

Valdés, I., Miranda, V., Fuentes, N. (2021). Proceder metodológico para la elaboración y puesta en práctica de situaciones de aprendizaje. Libro digital. IV Taller de Didáctica y Aplicación de las Ciencias Básicas, X Convección Científica Internacional. Universidad Integrada e Innovadora. páginas 121-133. ]

Valdés, I; Guerra, S; Camargo, M. (2020) Las habilidades de interacción social. Un puente hacia la inclusión social. Mendive. Revista de Educación , 18(1), 74-88, ISSN-e 1815-7696 [ Links ]

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Valdivia, P., Farias, C., Espoz, S. (2020). La metodología del juego en el área de Educación Física. ISBN 978-84-1324-591-1. Editorial Dykinson. https://www.researchgate.netLinks ]

Received: February 23, 2023; Accepted: February 14, 2024

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Los autores declaran no tener conflictos de interés de ninguna índole

Los autores participaron en el diseño y redacción del trabajo, y análisis de los documentos.

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