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Revista Ciencias Técnicas Agropecuarias

versión On-line ISSN 2071-0054

Rev Cie Téc Agr vol.26 no.1 San José de las Lajas ene.-mar. 2017

 

Revista Ciencias Técnicas Agropecuarias, 26(1): 66-70, 2017, ISSN: 2071-0054

 

ORIGINAL ARTICLE

 

Effects of Water Stress on Grain Yield in the Vegetative Phase of bean Cultivation (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

 

Efectos del estrés hídrico sobre el rendimiento de los granos del frijol (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

 

 

Dr.C. Ricardo Polón-Pérez, Dr.C. Michel Ruiz-Sánchez, Dr.C. Alexander Miranda-Caballero, Dr.C. Miguel Angel Ramírez-Arrebato

Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Agrícolas, Unidad Científica Tecnológica de Base (UCTB) “Los Palacios”, Pinar del Río, Cuba.

 

 


ABSTRACT

The experiment was carried out in the UCTB Los Palacios from 2010 to 2012, in Hydromorphic Gley Nodular Ferruginous Petroferric soil, from November to February in semicontrolled conditions, in 1m2 flowerpot stands of area. In each flowerpot, 40 seeds of Delicia 364 variety were sowed with the objective of evaluating the response of the bean subjected to different intensities of water stress in the vegetative phase and their effect in the yield. The results demonstrated that when bean cultivation in the vegetative phase is subjected to water stress with different intensities, increments in the yield were obtained in relation to the control that was maintained with normal irrigation. Different intensities of water stress in the vegetative phase incremented the yield.

Key words: irrigation, soil, water, green house.


RESUMEN

El experimento se condujo en la Unidad Científico Tecnológica Los Palacios (UCTB Los Palacios), desde el año 2010 hasta el 2012, sobre un suelo Hidromórfico Gley Nodular Ferruginoso Petroférrico durante el período de noviembre a febrero en condiciones semicontroladas, en maceteros de 1 m2 de área. En cada macetero se sembraron 40 semillas de la variedad Delicia 364, con el objetivo de evaluar la respuesta del frijol sometido a diferentes intensidades de estrés de agua en la fase vegetativa y su efecto en el rendimiento. Los resultados demostraron que al cultivo de frijol en la fase vegetativa al someterlo a estrés hídrico permitió incremento en el rendimiento a favor de los tratamientos con estrés respecto al testigo que se mantuvo con riego normal. Diferentes intensidades de estrés de agua en la fase vegetativa incremento el rendimiento.

Palabras clave: riego, suelo, agua, invernadero.


 

 

INTRODUCTION

The 60% of world bean production is obtained under conditions of water deficit, which has led to consider drought as the second limiting factor for its yield, after diseases1. The results reported by different authors agree that beans are susceptible to both excess and deficit of moisture during their development cycle. In this regard Boicet (2010), it was observed that production indicators of pods, seeds and yields were statistically superior, when the crop did not suffer from water deficit during its vegetative cycle. Equal result was obtained for plant height, stem diameter, number of branches and trifolioles, and dry biomass, resulting CC 25 - 9R the best variety.

In Cuba common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is an important part of Cuban diet; national production covers the areas sown by the Ministry of Agriculture within its strategic projection. In the year 2015 it reached 135 964 ha and a production of 190 350 T, with a yield of 1,4 t. ha-1 on average. This figure includes seed production, which means a major challenge for the country’s economy (Benítez, 2011).

The results of the research (Cabrera, 2011)show that under adverse edaphic climatic conditions (water stress and high temperatures) the varieties presented a stress index that varies in correspondence with the degree of tolerance that they present, which caused an increase of percent of membrane damage and free proline content in all varieties.

This work aims to evaluate the effect of water stress on the vegetative phase and its effect on grain yield.

 

METHODS

The experiment was performed for three years, from 2010 to 2012 at the UCTB Los Palacios, on a Hydromorphic Gley Nodular Ferruginous Petroferric soil (Hernández et al., 2015)from November to February in semicontrolled conditions, in 1 m2 pots of area, each one sowed with 40 seeds of Delicia 364 variety. The planting work was carried out according to the Technical Instructions for Cultivation (Álvarez, 2013).

A completely randomized experimental design was used, with three treatments, two with water stress and one control with normal irrigation according to Technical Instruction of the Bean (Álvarez, 2013). Irrigation was applied to the crop twice a week with a 5 L capacity bucket. Water stress was applied when the plants had between two and three leaves formed and the soil cracked.

Treatments:

T1- Water stress in the soil until leaf wilting and then normal watering

T2- Water stress in the soil up to yellowing of the leaves and then normal irrigation

T3- Normal irrigation throughout the crop cycle without water stress (control)

Evaluations:

For the evaluations 15 plants were taken per pot, the yield was calculated in 10 plants and weighed in an Electronic Ferton Balance with an accuracy of 0,011 pound. The number of total pods per plant was counted, for the dry mass 5 plants per pot were taken and were placed in an oven at 110 up to constant weight.

- Yield (g per plant)

- Number of pods for plant

- Dry mass for plant (g)

The obtained data were subjected to a simple variance analysis, applying Duncan’s multiple range tests when significant differences were found between the means for significance level (p≤0.05).

 

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

During the three years that the work was carried out, subjecting bean cultivation to water stress in the vegetative phase, a positive behavior was observed in favor of this variant in comparison to the control treatment with conventional irrigation. Grain yield, when exposed to different intensities of water stress, from leaf wilting to yellowing without affecting the leaf area (without loss of plant tissue), allowed an increase in yield with significant differences (p≤0, 05) when compared to the control treatment. The best treatments were T1 and T2 during the three years of study, and the worst of the treatments was the production control T3 with conventional (normal) irrigation without stress as can be seen in the Tables 1, 2 and 3. These results coincide with that reported by another author1, who stated that subjecting this crop to water stress in the vegetative phase does not decrease the yield in grains and their components, but that author does not state yield increases as reported in this research. However, another study (Boicet, 2010) states that the yield was statistically superior, when the crop did not suffer from water deficit (water stress) during the vegetative cycle of the crop.

Investigating about water stress by default in bean cultivation, yield increases in grains and their components were reported by several authors (Polón et al., 2013, 2014), although these results do not coincide with those reported by another author (Boicet, 2010).

Means with letters in common did not differ significantly according to Duncan’s test for p≤0,05.

The grain yield (Tables 1, 2 and 3) during the three years of the wilting variant of the plant leaves behaved between 160.6 g and 179.8 g, whereas the yellowing variant of the plant leaves were between 181.6 and 206.9 g, and for the control, that was the lowest value of all, it oscillated between 105.7 and 120.0 g, which indicates the positive effect of water stress in that crop in the early stages of its cycle (vegetative phase). In this respect, other authors, in this same crop and in others different to this one2 (Greven et al., 1997; Alemán et al., 2010; Acosta et al., 2011; López, 2011; Nahar et al., 2011; Aguilar et al., 2012; Sokoto y Muhammad, 2014)do not agree with the results obtained in this investigation, that is, a water deficit in the soil instead of decreasing grain yield increases it. That happened with the variety Delicia 364 under the edaphoclimatic conditions of Los Palacios, in Pinar del Río province.

Means with letters in common did not differ significantly according to Duncan’s test for p≤0,05.

The number of pods appearing in Tables 1, 2 and 3 behaved as follows, for T1 remained throughout the study between 5.6 and 6.7; while for T2 it ranged between 7.0 and 9.3, with these two treatments statistically exceeding control T3 that showed the lowest values, between 3.8 and 4.6 pods per plant. The number of pods per plant had a behavior similar to yield. It was possible to attribute the highest yield to this component among other factors. Similar result was reported by other authors (Paisin et al., 1991; Nielsen y Nelson, 1998; Polón et al., 2013, 2014).

Means with letters in common did not differ significantly according to Duncan’s test for p≤0,05.

Dry mass, is an important physiological variable (Tables 1, 2 and 3) that always behaved favorably to the treatments with water deficit and unfavorable to the control. For T1, it remained between 1,40 and 1,60g; for T2 the behavior ranged from 1,64 to 1,88 g, and for the worst of the treatments (T3), it was found between 0,73 and 0,81 g, exceeding the first two treatments statistically to the third (control). These results disagree with those reported by several authors (Benítez, 2011; Reyes-Matamoros et al., 2014; Meriño et al., 2015) who have worked water deficit to this crop, and testify that it always goes on depressing the dry mass and finally affecting the grain yield.

 

CONCLUSIONS

It can be stated that, by subjecting bean cultivation to water stress in the vegetative phase in the variety Delicia 364, the yield in grains, the number of pods per plant and the dry mass per plant increase, with more efficient use of water compared to the control treatment (normal watering). Beans with water stress showed a brighter color and were heavier with respect to the control.

 

NOTES

Dávila, R.: Frijol más resistente a la sequía, Folleto, 2010.

2 García, M.; Espinosa, A.: Efecto de la sequía en el rendimiento del frijol (Phaseolus vulgares L.), [en línea], p 1-12, 2014, Disponible en: http://www.monografias.com/trabajos94/efecto-sequia-rendimiento-del-cultivo-del-frijol/efecto-sequia-rendimiento-del-cultivo-del-frijol.shtml. [Consulta: 26 de noviembre de 2015].

*The mention of commercial equipment marks; instruments or specific materials obey identification purposes, not existing any promotional commitment with relationship to them, neither for the authors nor for the editor.

 

BIBLIOGRAPHY

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Alemán, S.; Domínguez, A.; Domínguez, D.; Fuentes, L.; Miranda, K.; Pérez, Y.; Pernía, B.; Sosa, D.; Sosa, M.; Infante, D.: “Estudio anatómico y bioquímico en materiales cubanos y venezolanos de Phaseolus vulgaris L. bajo condiciones de estrés hídrico”, RET. Revista de Estudios Transdisciplinarios, 2(1): 89–99, 2010, ISSN: 1856-9161.

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Benítez, R.: “Nuevas variedades de frijol común para la producción comercial en Cuba”, [en línea], En: V Encuentro Internacional de Arroz, I Simposio de Granos, La Habana, Cuba, pp. 109–110, 2011, Disponible en: https://scholar.google.com/scholar?q=Nuevas+variedades+de+frijol+com%C3%BAn+para+la+producci%C3%B3n+comercial+en+Cuba&btnG=&hl=es&as_sdt=0%2C5, [Consulta: 26 de noviembre de 2015].

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Sokoto, M.B.; Muhammad, A.: “Response of Rice Varieties to Water Stress in Sokoto, Sudan Savannah, Nigeria”, Journal of Biosciences and Medicines, 2(1): 68-74, 2014, ISSN: 2327-5081, 2327-509X, DOI: 10.4236/jbm.2014.21008.

 

 

Received: 10/12/2015
Approved: 14/11/2016

 

 

Ricardo Polón-Pérez, Investigador Auxiliar y Profesor Auxiliar, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Agrícolas, Unidad Científica Tecnológica de Base (UCTB) “Los Palacios”, Pinar del Río, Cuba. Email: rpolon@inca.edu.cu

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