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Revista Universidad y Sociedad

versión On-line ISSN 2218-3620

Universidad y Sociedad vol.12 no.5 Cienfuegos sept.-oct. 2020  Epub 02-Oct-2020


Artículo Original

Innovative technologies in the teaching of historical, social and human sciences

Tecnologías innovadoras en la enseñanza de ciencias históricas, sociales y humanas

1 Sumy State Pedagogical University named after A.S. Makarenko. Ukraine


The relevance of the problem under study is due to the need to use positive historical experience in the theory of the organization of teaching social and human sciences. The purpose of the article is to state the main provisions of the optimal approach to the learning process, the essence of which is the use of such forms of organization, teaching methods and techniques, which, with minimal effort and time of the participants in the learning process, would achieve the maximum result in learning. The leading approach to the study of this problem is the use of such methods: theoretical analysis of literature, comparative studies, extrapolation and inductive-deductive method. The main results of the article are the identification and justification of innovative technologies, which, according to the results of modern research and theoretical interpretations in the field of teaching social and human sciences, are reduced to two main systems for organizing training: design training system; integrated learning system - “dialogue of cultures”. Materials of the article can be useful to teachers of history, social and human sciences in organizing training, creating work programs for training courses.

Keywords: Learning optimization; innovative learning; project method; dialogue of cultures; heuristic pedagogy


La relevancia del problema en estudio se debe a la necesidad de utilizar la experiencia histórica positiva en la teoría de la organización de la enseñanza de las ciencias sociales y humanas. El propósito del artículo es establecer las principales disposiciones del enfoque óptimo del proceso de aprendizaje, cuya esencia es el uso de tales formas de organización, métodos y técnicas de enseñanza, que, con el mínimo esfuerzo y tiempo de los participantes en el proceso de aprendizaje, lograría el máximo resultado en el aprendizaje. El enfoque principal para el estudio de este problema es el uso de tales métodos: análisis teórico de la literatura, estudios comparativos, extrapolación, método inductivo-deductivo. Los principales resultados del artículo son la identificación y justificación de tecnologías innovadoras, que, de acuerdo con los resultados de las investigaciones modernas y las interpretaciones teóricas en el campo de la enseñanza de las ciencias sociales y humanas, se reducen a dos sistemas principales de organización de la formación: diseño sistema de entrenamiento; sistema de aprendizaje integrado - “diálogo de culturas”. Los materiales del artículo pueden ser útiles para los profesores de historia, ciencias sociales y humanas en la organización de la formación, creando programas de trabajo para cursos de formación.

Palabras clave: Optimización del aprendizaje; aprendizaje innovador; método de proyecto; diálogo de culturas; pedagogía heurística


The emergence of innovative technologies in the teaching of social and human sciences was due to the optimization of the educational process, which was introduced into the practice of the educational system of the USSR in 1970-1980. as a way of organizing training developed by Russian scientists and teachers under the guidance of academician Yu.K. Babansky (1927-1987). The optimization of the educational process has entered the treasury of the achievements of Soviet didactics as one of the basic principles of the theory of teaching (didactics). The essence of this theory was the desire to improve the results of the educational process with the help of new approaches to planning and choosing methods of teacher activity. In the opinion of Babansky & Potashnik (1983), the main ways of teachers' activities that simultaneously lead to increased teaching efficiency and prevent the exceeding of the norms of time and effort of teachers, include:

  1. An integrated approach to the selection and solution of training problems, to the construction of its content, methods, means and forms of activity.

  2. Concretization of tasks, content, methods, tools, forms of organization of teacher’s activity, taking into account the existing conditions and capabilities.

  3. The allocation of the main, essential in the content of training in planning tasks, content, forms, methods of activity.

  4. Comparative evaluation of various options for methods, tools, forms of training in order to choose the best of them according to relevant criteria.

  5. A differentiated approach to the selection of tasks, content, methods, forms of training, taking into account the characteristics of individual groups of students.

  6. Creating the necessary conditions for training.

  7. Operational adjustments in training taking into account conditions and opportunities.

  8. Focus on saving time, effort, money in the learning process.

In an abbreviated wording, the general methods for optimizing training include comprehensive task planning, concretization, generalization, comparative assessment and choice of options, differentiation, operational correction, and economization of all components of the educational process (Gordadze, et al., 2018; Kuznetsov, et al., 2018). Innovative training provides for the use in the educational process of new forms of organization and methods that in the least amount of time contributed to the achievement of the greatest results. The concept of “innovative training” entered the practice of educational activity a little later, when instead of the concept of scientific and technological progress in production, which existed in Soviet times, the concepts of “innovation” and “innovative technologies” were used. In this regard, new concepts arise in educational activities: creative pedagogy, pedagogy of cooperation, comparative pedagogy, pedagogical innovation, didactic heuristics, which from different positions of the organization of training and practical activities of teachers’ study and implement new teaching methods in the educational process (Guliyev, et al., 2017). In teaching socio-historical disciplines, innovative teaching provides for the formation of the following basic skills of scientific perception of material:

  1. Understanding how the past is interpreted by contemporaries.

  2. Analytical perception of materials coming from various sources, their critical use.

  3. The ability to choose between different versions or interpretations of the past several points of view and give them an assessment.

  4. The ability to distinguish fact from fiction, bias, bias.

  5. The ability to make independent and balanced assessments based on an analysis of objective facts.

Innovative learning involves the use of such forms of organization and methods that are aimed at creative improvisation of a teacher, at his ability to discover, develop and apply creative cognitive tasks (Lapidus et al., 2018a; Lapidus et al., 2018b).


Training in cooperation or pedagogy of cooperation is a training system based on the joint activities of the teacher and students, mutual understanding and humanism, the unity of interests and aspirations of all participants in the educational process and is aimed at the personal development of students. One of the typical examples in this should be the didactic system, which in the second half of the twentieth century was suggested French teacher of historical disciplines C. Freinet (1896-1966). In his work “Pedagogical Invariants”, he proposed the following settings (Wulfson, 2002):

  1. The maximum development of the personality of the child in a reasonably organized society.

  2. Tomorrow's school will focus on a child member of society.

  3. The child builds his personality himself, and we help him in this.

  4. Labor will become the main driving force and philosophy of the public school. A bright head and skillful hands are better than a mind overloaded with unnecessary knowledge.

  5. Discipline is the key to the result of organized labor.

The goal of the training, according to C. Freinet, is to maximize the development of the student’s personality. In this regard, the main task of studying socio-historical disciplines is not memorization of material, but, above all: development of the child’s creative abilities, his desire for self-realization; creating an enabling environment that encourages the student to actively learn (Guliyev, et al., 2018).

The French teacher saw the content of teaching socio-historical disciplines in the organization of creative, research activities (Wulfson, 2002). At the same time, this idea was intercepted in American pedagogy, although it was even earlier developed in the philosophy of Dewey (1916, 1938), an American philosopher, psychologist and teacher, who at the beginning of the 20th century founded the pedagogic (1859-1952) - American philosopher and teacher, representative of the philosophical direction of “pragmatism”. He is an author of the direction “pedagogy of action”, which later became known as “pedocentrism”.

Collaborative learning included learning in small groups. Such an organization of training is based on three basic principles: principle of encouragement - getting one for the whole assessment group; the principle of individualization - each student fulfilling their share of the group assignment; the principle of equal opportunity - the introduction of each member of the group into the overall result of their particles. These principles were implemented in three versions. The first option is team training. Pupils of the class are divided into groups (4 students each). The teacher first explains the material, and then students in groups discuss and consolidate it. The second option. Students are divided into groups (4-6 students in a group) and work independently on the material that the teacher gives them. Upon completion of the work, students will publish the results of their work (Kerimov & Rachinsky, 2016). The essence of the theoretical interpretations (Bazhenova, 1988; Kerimov et al., 2018a b; Kerimov, et al., 2019), was reduced to two main systems of organization of training, which could be successfully applied in the teaching of historical disciplines.

Design Training System

Project system (project method, target method) - the organization of training in which students acquire knowledge in the planning and implementation of practical tasks-projects. This system was introduced into training at the beginning of the 20th century. The author of the project training system, American educator W. Kilpatrick (1918) believed that the study of history should be focused on a combination of social problems of mankind in the past and present. The main principles of the projects:

  1. Providing maximum freedom to students in matters of content, forms of work.

  2. Priority research activities.

  3. Using the experience of studying previous material and students' own life experiences.

  4. Use in training in the form of questions and answers.

  5. The combination of rational and intuitive to master the material.

Project themes are presented in game (role) versions: “traveler's notes” (“letters”, “diary”), which are written from the name of a historical person or from the first person who is a participant in events. It can be a trip to Sparta or Athens, when the student must play the role of a certain historical character and, according to his own experiences, make a decision. Each project has an individual scenario, which is determined by the topics of individual projects and indicative questions for them. Project training can be used in the process of self-learning of students, as a preparatory stage for the main (key) questions of the lesson topic (Kerimov, et al., 2017).

Integrated learning system - “dialogue of cultures”

An integrated learning system is a system in which educational material is studied on certain complex topics. Organizational forms of organization of training according to this model as a whole are not much different from the traditional lesson. But training is built on a problematic basis and dialogue methods. The most vividly integrated learning system is presented in the so-called “school of dialogue of cultures”. The dialogue of cultures is a form of intercultural interaction in the process of which the mutual transformation of cultures takes place, significant phenomena in one culture give rise to corresponding phenomena in another; determine the existence of a common cultural thesaurus. The dialogue of cultures presupposes close relationships between subjects of the cultural process (human communities, ethnic and national-political entities) (Kerimov, et al., 2015; Kerimov, Mustaev & Bondarev, 2016).

The model of “dialogue of cultures” in the teaching of history is based on the integration of the content of humanitarian subjects on cultural principles, understanding by students of a person of a certain historical era through work with historical texts of this era. Teaching according to the “dialogue of cultures” model is based on the principles of logic, history, dialog, cyclical, and problem. Organization of training on the model of “dialogue of cultures” can be carried out within the framework of the integrated course “History of Culture”, which combines the material of history, literature, visual arts and integrated teaching of history and literature. According to the Ukrainian researcher Bakhanov (2007), during the last decade of the twentieth and the beginning of the XXI century. fundamental changes took place in the content of school historical education, which took place in three stages:

  1. 1989 - 1992 years.

  2. 1992 - 1996 years.

  3. 1996 - 2005 years.

The first stage was the separation of the history of Ukraine in an independent course. Although the layout of the material took place according to the old Soviet schemes, the authors of the textbooks still started from abstracts that had not passed the test of time. At the same time, new approaches to the coverage and determination of the essence of individual periods, especially Soviet society, appeared, attention to the role of the individual in history increased, the question of alternativeness in history and the need for orientation towards dialogue with the student were raised. At the second stage, a departure from the old cliches and stereotypes associated with the formal approach was proclaimed, and national history was described as a complex process of the state, attention was paid to the civilizational development of mankind; the cultural orientation of the content intensified; special attention was paid to the national liberation movement; previously covered pages of national history were covered.

At the third stage, the course of the history of Ukraine was built according to generally accepted historical periods on the basis of the new assessments of events and their chronological framework are presented, new subjects are included, the positions of the communist regime are clearly defined, the main stages of Ukraine's movement towards its independence are emphasized.

The program on world history was separated from the program on the history of Ukraine. It proclaimed civilizational, culturological, and stage-regional approaches to the formation of material; in the selection of content, the line of the state and the reform of society, the influence of religions on social life were traced; less attention was paid to social movements, revolutions. In his doctoral research Bakhanov (2007), notes that in modern history teaching at school, two groups of innovative technologies can be distinguished:

  • Technologies aimed mainly at the formation of knowledge, skills, and partial formation of ways of mental actions, self-development and development of creative abilities - the technology of complete assimilation.

  • Technologies aimed at the development of students - the formation of ways of mental actions, self-governing mechanisms of personality, creative abilities and the parallel mastery of knowledge, skills - the technology of developing learning.


Modern technologies for teaching history differ in the main ways to implement a specific goal. In technologies for the complete assimilation of educational material, the main thing is to optimize learning - to achieve maximum results with minimal time. The maximum efficiency of the educational process in the study of historical disciplines is achieved by the intensification of training on the basis of sign-symbolic models, improving the control system and rating assessment of knowledge, etc. In modern technologies for teaching history, the main components are problematic methods, algorithmization of instruction, individual independent work of students and modular organization of instruction.

The materials of the article are of value to teachers of historical, social and human sciences of higher educational institutions, as well as teachers of educational schools. Modern technologies for teaching history differ in the main ways to implement a specific goal. In technologies for the complete assimilation of educational material, the main thing is to optimize learning - to achieve maximum results with minimal time. The maximum efficiency of the educational process in the study of historical disciplines is achieved by the intensification of training on the basis of sign-symbolic models, improving the control system and rating assessment of knowledge, etc. In modern technologies for teaching history, the main components are problematic methods, algorithmization of instruction, individual independent work of students and modular organization of instruction. The use of design and integrated learning systems (“dialogue of cultures”) are most effective in teaching historical, social and human sciences. Attention of further research should be paid to the application of the principle of "personal approach" in the use of the above methods of teaching historical, social and humanitarian sciences.

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Received: May 08, 2020; Accepted: July 03, 2020

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Los autores han participado en la redacción del trabajo y análisis de los documentos.

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