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Revista Universidad y Sociedad

versión On-line ISSN 2218-3620

Universidad y Sociedad vol.12 no.5 Cienfuegos sept.-oct. 2020  Epub 02-Oct-2020


Artículo Original

Role of great wrıter Jalıl Mammadguluzade and “Molla Nasraddın” Journal the hıstory of Azerbaıjanı lıterature

Papel del gran escrıtor Jalıl Mammadguluzade y "Molla Nasraddın" Revısta de hıstorıa de la lıteratura azerbaıyana

1 Nakhchivan Teachers' Institute. Azerbaijan


According to the educative principle of training, Mammadguluzadeh offered to include practical subjects in the curriculum so that they could improve children's scientific outlook and noble moral qualities. The article discusses the legacy of the great writer, playwright Jalil Mammadguluzadeh, his theoretical view about the school, teacher, and education issues. Asserting that the teaching must be honest, honorable, sacred, responsible, he encouraged teachers to have high ideals, principles, noble moral qualities, comprehensive knowledge, to work on themselves regularly, to increase their knowledge, to be aware of scientific achievements and to instill knowledge to the younger generation. According to Mirza Jalil, a teacher should not limit his work with school, but should also work among the public, disseminate his work for the enlightenment of the people, and the target should be to serve the people with dignity. According to the educative principle of training, Mammadguluzadeh offered to include practical subjects in the curriculum so that they could improve children's scientific outlook and noble moral qualities.

Keywords: Playwright; nobleness of teacher; training and education; comprehensive knowledge; the enlightenment of the young generation


De acuerdo con el principio educativo de la formación, Mammadguluzadeh se ofreció a incluir asignaturas prácticas en el plan de estudios para que pudieran mejorar la perspectiva científica y las nobles cualidades morales de los niños. El artículo analiza el legado del gran escritor, dramaturgo Jalil Mammadguluzadeh, su visión teórica sobre la escuela, el maestro y los problemas educativos. Afirmando que la enseñanza debe ser honesta, honorable, sagrada, responsable, alentó a los maestros a tener altos ideales, principios, nobles cualidades morales, conocimiento integral, a trabajar sobre sí mismos regularmente, a incrementar sus conocimientos, a ser conscientes de los logros científicos y a inculcar conocimiento a la generación más joven. Según Mirza Jalil, un docente no debe limitar su trabajo con la escuela, sino que también debe trabajar entre el público, difundir su trabajo para la iluminación de la gente, y el objetivo debe ser servir a la gente con dignidad. De acuerdo con el principio educativo de la formación, Mammadguluzadeh se ofreció a incluir asignaturas prácticas en el plan de estudios para que pudieran mejorar la perspectiva científica y las nobles cualidades morales de los niños.

Palabras clave: Dramaturgo; nobleza del maestro; formación y educación; conocimiento integral; la ilustración de la generación joven


On January 17, 2019, President of the Republic of Azerbaijan Ilham Aliyev signed an Order on the 150th anniversary of Jalil Mammadguluzadeh, a prominent representative of the history of school and pedagogical thought, great writer, playwright, publicist, public figure and pedagogue. The order says that the valuable dramas and prose works created by Jalil Mammadguluzadeh, with their brilliant journalism and deep humanism, include the unity of national and universal values, the struggle for the purity of the mother tongue.

At one time, national leader Heydar Aliyev, while assessing the work of Mirza Jalil, noted that in the legacy of Jalil Mammadguluzadeh, national and human ideas prevail. National leader Heydar Aliyev described such national features, universal values and national ideology in Jalil Mammadguluzadeh as follows: “Jalil Mammadguluzadeh is a genius, writer, publicist, philosopher, thinker, a person who has greatly enriched the culture of our people. In Jalil Mammadguluzadeh's work, the ideas that reflect all the national features of Azerbaijan, as well as universal values, are the basis of our national ideology and a great tool for the emergence of that ideology, a great wealth. Heydar Aliyev considered the works created by Jalil Mammadguluzadeh a source of national wealth and spirituality of the Azerbaijani people. Because the magazine "Molla Nasreddin", edited by the great thinker, was closely connected with the people, their life, dreams and deeds. Mirza Jalil always tried to make our people happy. His feuilletons, stories and poems are a generalized form of the fate of an entire nation, its future, not of individuals (Ahmadov, 1967).

Along with issues such as economy, life, culture, morals, medicine and others, Jalil Mammadguluzadeh was always thinking about the problems of school, teacher, education. The great democrat Jalil Mammadguluzadeh was one of those who had a great contribution to the establishment of national schools, the training of teachers, the secularization and democratization of education and its transformation in the first decades of the turbulent, revolutionary twentieth century. Jalil Mammadguluzadeh saw the happiness of the people in public schools, science and education, which sowed the seeds of enlightenment. He was of the opinion that the material poverty and economic depravity of every nation is the result of its mental poverty and moral depravity. As can be seen, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, Azerbaijan lagged behind in the progress of science. One reason for this was the deliberate national colonial policy of the Tsarist Russian Empire, and the other was the blind view of Islam by the common people. Seeing this, Jalil Mammadguluzadeh carried out extensive propaganda work among the people through the press, explained to people the importance of science, education, the superiority of cultural life, and tried to wake them from their slumber.

Mammadguluzadeh gave wide space to general education, seriously fought for the implementation of general compulsory education, expansion of school networks. He praised the role of advanced schools in the acquisition of science by the younger generation, the elimination of illiteracy, new methods, secular education, properly organized educational work, sharply criticized the old scholastic schools, where mechanical memorization with poisonous ideas was applied. The prominent educator-pedagogue paid special attention to native-language primary schools as a necessary condition for the people's enlightenment, as well as demanded the opening of primary schools in the native language. It is possible to come across articles about this, especially in various issues of the "Azerbaijan Journal of Educational Stdueis" magazine published since 1924 (Agayev, 1967).

As we have noted, he saw the progress of the people in the activities of teachers. The ideas of the great thinker, who highlighted the creation of new methodological schools, the connection of teaching with life, the teacher's connection with the people, and the issues of school discipline, are still relevant today with the famous "Stories of Danabash village" or "Danabash village school".

Mammadguluzadeh is one of the prominent representatives of the social and ideological movement of the XVIII-XIX centuries. became acquainted. Reading and studying classical pedagogues had a strong impact on Jalil Mammadguluzadeh's development as a teacher. The activity of these great personalities in the way of public education, teaching on methodology and didactics, pedagogical heritage, personal self-sacrifice were inspiring examples for him until the end of his life. We see this in the fact that the pedagogue mentions these personalities in his works and gives examples and quotations from them.

Mammadguluzadeh, who was a teacher and principal at Nakhchivan city school (1881-1882), Bash Norashen (now Sharur district) (1888), Nehram school (1890-1897), based his teaching on new, useful teaching methods. Language ”was tested in school practice. He conveyed to the students the advanced enlightening ideas corresponding to the age and level of knowledge”. (Habibbeyli, 2009, p.113)

Comenius, who wanted to see man as "wise", demanded consistency, clarity, "golden rules" from teaching, condemned memorization, and thought about "how to benefit from what a student learns in everyday life," wrote "everything for others, nothing for myself." Pestalozzi, who worked to "improve human medicine," and Ushinsky, who called himself "to do as much good as possible for the motherland," who said that "preparing people for work" was the main task of education, and who aroused great love for the mother tongue. The research conducted by pedagogical specialists proves that Pirogov, who called for the education of a distant, "real man", is useful and instructive for the definition and development of not only the pedagogical views of the Azerbaijani classics, but also all social ideals. It is not accidental that a number of major social problems in the works of Mammadguluzadeh are related to the enlightenment of the people, school, teacher, teaching methods, teaching aids and so on issues (Ahmadov, 1967).


Maharramov evaluates the great playwright's "Dead" as the work of a prominent pedagogue who is well acquainted with human psychology, and comments on his work with concrete examples from this work, where the issue of "interaction between feelings and cognition" is reflected in live scenes. In the comedy, issues such as "fear and the influence of it easily" (belief in the resurrection of the dead), "the contagious nature of emotions" (the effect of Sheikh Nasrallah's weeping), "the negative effect of fear on cognition and activity" also "psychologically correct" (Maharramov, 1967).

Mammadguluzadeh, as well as Pestalotsi's visual teaching and Tolstoy's "free" theories, "with the main psychological currents of his time" (Agayev, 1967), became acquainted with them and approached them critically. He was of the opinion that the school should first of all give the child the knowledge that will help him in practical life and economy. From this point of view, the educator does not object to memorization, to the simplification of the lesson of visual teaching and the object of its expression. The terms child psychology, experimental psychology, pedagogical psychology were used by Jalil Mammadguluzadeh for the first time in the history of pedagogical thought in Azerbaijan. Speaks scientifically (Agayev, 1967).

As we have noted, he highlighted the issues of school and education in his works, especially in the magazine "Molla Nasreddin", sharply criticized the uselessness of education in schools, one of the main reasons for the failure of pedagogical work was the unhealthy teacher contingent. has seen. In Jalil Mammadguluzadeh's column "Why did I miss school?" We read: "Many people in the world have run away from school. I do not know other nations, but I know that there is no Muslim in the world who has not missed a lesson. In short, he is not a Muslim who does not miss classes.

It is known that there are several reasons to miss classes. You see, a thirteen-year-old boy is alive and well as long as he rides a horse out of a reed and runs through the streets, but as soon as he goes to school, his red cheeks begin to fade, like a poor man's Shaki apple. The child's father went and told Haji Karim the story to the doctor, and as soon as the doctor looked at the child's face, he wrote a prayer for him and told the child's father that his son had no other ailments.

Mammadguluzadeh created the teacher training corresponding to his meeting in the above-mentioned work "Teacher of Danabash village". Despite some ridiculous situations, the teacher training created here is fundamentally different from the old-fashioned teacher training. This teacher tries to attract students' attention to the topic to be taught and mastered in the lesson, to interest and activate children in the lesson (Ahmadov, 1966).

In The Teacher of Danabash Village, the teacher pays special attention to the fact that children learn the rules of behavior during training, sit properly in the classroom, do not speak without permission and do not leave the classroom, trying to form in them the rules of cultural behavior necessary for society. Allows students to ask questions to the teacher when they do not understand the topics. Taking into account the age characteristics of children, the teacher pays special attention to the visual nature of any teaching material taught to them, makes special efforts to arouse their interest in learning, to activate all students and to master the taught material through questions and answers. The teacher he describes develops students' understanding of the subject, their ability to express their thoughts and thinking (Mammadov, 2012). In this work, Jalil Mammadguluzadeh created the image of the teacher of his dreams. The teacher's main means of communication described in the book is a sincere relationship with children. The teacher's respect for the child's personality is reflected in his sincere attitude toward his students. Children who are already afraid to speak in the mollakhana actively communicate with the teacher during the lesson described in this work. As a result of this communication, schoolchildren become extremely active.

The image of a teacher with a democratic spirit and national color, created by Jalil Mammadguluzadeh, not only respects children in the learning process, but also calls them to a healthy discipline. When necessary, it also uses the method of punishment as a tool to form the norms of behavior that children need. However, the punishment he used was not the physical punishment used by the mullahs in the mollakhana. It is a type of punishment that is used to promote positive behavior and does not cause moral or physical harm during its application.

Apparently, Jalil Mammadguluzadeh tried to instill in his readers the use of the method of encouragement and punishment in pedagogy, and he succeeded. He notes in his works that a real teacher should gain self-respect and prestige not only among students, but also among the people with his knowledge, culture, skills, courtesy, behavior, simplicity (Mammadov, 2012). The pedagogue laughs at teachers who do not follow discipline and writes in his column "Teachers": "First of all, when the mullahs want to have fun, they will go to class, when they do not want to have fun, that is, when they do not have time, they will not go." They do not teach any lessons in fasting and mahram, because they have a lot of activities during the fair (K.C.). At other times, if they go to the place of the dead, cut the Ka'bah and divorce it, they will not be able to attend classes, such as hospitality, condolences, mourning, mourning, mourning, congregational prayers, visiting the Companions of the Cave, and so on. Because the salary will be paid on time. For example, in Baku, Mullah Ruhulla efendi is always considered a teacher in two city schools, one in "Saadat" or in another school, whether in the mosque or in the pulpit. But in one of the city schools, for example, he teaches forty-five out of seventy-five lessons a year and can only attend thirty classes. What a miserable destiny, it cannot be broken!

So, such teachers have no respect or authority among the people. In this regard, he wrote an article on the death of pedagogue and enlightener Mohammad Taghi Sidgi, referring to the great enlightener's reputation among the people for his knowledge, culture, skills, courtesy, behavior, simplicity. and the state of affairs ten years ago with the present state of affairs in the world of enlightenment. Progress is already visible, and if we say that it is Siddiqui who is responsible for nine out of ten of these progresses, he will not be far from justice and truth (Mammadguluzadeh, 2004a b).


An obituary written by a prominent enlightener on this occasion shows that the prestige gained under the influence of fear cannot be true respect and prestige. A true teacher must be able to build respect, mutual understanding and cooperation between the school and parents for his pedagogical skills and humanity, his humanity, his sincerity towards students and the people. In general, Jalil Mammadguluzadeh wants to convey that a teacher should be one of the leading figures in the society, who treats the children of the people, works hard for their knowledge and literacy, ensures their successful adaptation to the society they own.

From the above-mentioned views, Jalil Mammadguluzadeh's meetings on teacher and teacher training can be characterized as follows.


  • be the most important figure in school and education in general;

  • Help the child develop his or her beliefs;

  • must have a high moral and cultural level in addition to professional training;

  • be able to develop in students a strong love for all goodness and beauty, noble feelings through moral education;

  • must work selflessly for the people;

  • The requirements for students should be appropriate and clear for their age;

  • be patient, restrained, pay attention to the indifference of the environment;

  • The child should be able to understand the spirit, to control the heart;

  • strive for the general progress and enlightenment of the people, do not spare their property and lives for the sake of the homeland;

  • Love and devotion to the motherland should be instilled in children in such a vicious way that it arouses in children a sense of national pride in loving the motherland.

Jalil Mammadguluzadeh's views on the personality of teachers and teacher training are still relevant today, inspiring the army of teachers engaged in educational work to new successes.

Bibliographic references

Agayev, Ş. (1967). Psychological issues in the works of the great writer. Azerbaijan School Magazine, 1, 62-76. [ Links ]

Ahmadov, H. (1967). J. Mammadguluzadeh and some issues of Russian pedagogical thought. Azarbaijan Maktabi, 2, 66-73. [ Links ]

Habibbayli, I. (2009). Jalil Mammadguluzadeh: environment and contemporaries. Nakhchivan. [ Links ]

Maharramov, M. (1967). A psychological moment in The Dead. Azerbaijan Muallimi, Newspaper, 39. [ Links ]

Mammadguluzadeh, C. (2004a). Works. In 4 volumes. Volume I. Leader. [ Links ]

Mammadguluzadeh, C. (2004b). Works. In 4 volumes . Volume IV Leader. [ Links ]

Mammadov, M. (2012). The Power of the Publicist Word. Istanbul. [ Links ]

Received: May 11, 2020; Accepted: July 18, 2020

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Los autores declaran no tener conflictos de intereses.

Los autores han participado en la redacción del trabajo y análisis de los documentos.

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