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Revista Universidad y Sociedad

versión On-line ISSN 2218-3620

Universidad y Sociedad vol.13 no.3 Cienfuegos mayo.-jun. 2021  Epub 02-Jun-2021


Articulo original

Guıdelınes for lesson plannıng, specıfıcatıon of tasks and a place for the development of the student's personalıty

Recomendaciones para la planificación de lecciones, especificación de tareas y un lugar para el desarrollo de la personalidad del estudiante

0000-0002-7333-1439Abdinova Nigar Javad Gizi1  * 

1 Azerbaijan State Pedagogical University. Azerbaijan.


The education has been a topic of special interest for scientists during centuries, and this is not accidental, because learning is one of the activities that characterize human beings. Educators, psychologists and other professionals have investigated during centuries to develop, organize and optimize the methods, tools and teaching procedures, but as any other system this should be seen holistically. By means of a bibliographical research and observation it was found that until present many professors present difficulties for the precise delimitation of the learning objectives, being this a factor that hinders the learning process of students. For this reason, the objective of this article is to offer some recommendations to facilitate the work of the educators aiming at ultimately to improve the educational process.

Key words: Education; learning tasks; curriculum


La educación ha sido un tema de especial interés para los científicos durante siglos y esto no es accidental, pues el aprendizaje es una de las actividades que caracterizan a los seres humanos. Educadores, psicólogos y otros profesionales han investigado durante siglos para desarrollar, organizar y optimizar los métodos, herramientas y procedimientos de enseñanza, pero al igual que cualquier otro sistema este debe ser visto holísticamente. Mediante una revisión bibliográfica y la observación se pudo comprobar que hasta el momento muchos profesores presentan dificultades para la delimitación precisa de los objetivos de aprendizaje constituyendo un factor que entorpece el proceso de aprendizaje de sus estudiantes. Por esta razón el objetivo de este artículo es brindar algunas recomendaciones para facilitar el trabajo de los educadores para, en última instancia, mejorar el proceso educativo.

Palabras-clave: Educación; tareas de aprendizaje; currículo


Education, as Kemmis, et al. (2014), have defined it, refers to the “process by which children, young people, and adults are initiated into forms of understanding, modes of action, and ways of relating to one another and the world that foster (respectively) individual and collective self-expression, individual and collective self-development, and individual and collective self-determination and that are, in these senses, oriented towards the good for each person and the good for humankind”. (p. 26)

This calls for scrutinizing what it means to educate and study education, recognizing the role of education in today’s changing world and striving to discern what the “good” consists in (Kaukko, et al., 2020).

At present there are several learning theories as it can be seen in Schunk (2020); each one with advantages and disadvantages (Akpan & Kennedy, 2020) however an important factor commonly disregarded is the importance of learning tasks. In the words of Tatnall (2020), “tasks designed to teach students not only how to do something (e.g., write an essay) but also to teach them about something (e.g., history of ancient Greece) are often ignored when researchers talk about designing instruction. One of the reasons that learning tasks tend to receive little attention in higher education is that procedural knowledge tends to be left to training and, in higher education, instruction is designed to focus on epistemic matters. Another reason that tasks may receive less attention than they should when we think about teaching is that many instructors are not very good at explicitly setting learning objectives for their students and their instructional materials”. The last one statement was highlighted by Chu, et al. (20179) stating that “one limitation of the twenty-first century skills models is that while they specify prioritized learning objectives, they do not offer educators the “means” by which to achieve those articulated “ends”. (p. 616)

We agree with these statements. In the learning process, the creative nature of the lesson is important for the existence of conditions that direct students to think actively, to understand the new, to educate them; and of course, the role of the teacher in the organization of such lessons is important. Written by K. D. Ushinskyas "Education is a very powerful member of education, and a teacher deprived of this member loses the most basic and real means of influencing children."

One of the most important aspects of any activity is the correct design of its goals and objectives. Comprehensive planning of tasks (objectives) for education, upbringing and development of students is an important conditions for optimizing the learning process. It allows to perform not one, but several training tasks at the same time where the main tasks (objectives) of education include the formation of theoretical knowledge, special skills and habits specific to a particular subject. For this reason the objective of this paper is to provide some guidelines for lesson planning and specification of tasks in order to help teachers to improve the education process.


In the analysis phase of planning instruction, it is reasonable for a designer to consider the kinds of things to be learned (Anderson, et al., 2001). According to Gagne (1985), there are five different kinds of things that can be learned: (a) verbal information (e.g., facts, as in knowing that), (b) cognitive strategies (e.g., selecting a process to address a problem situation, as in knowing why and when), (c) intellectual skills (e.g., using rules to solve a problem, as in knowing how), (d) motor skills (e.g., riding a bicycle, as in performing well), and (e) attitudes (e.g., fascination with science, as in being interested in or inclined to) (Huang, et al., 2019).

However, the formation of special skills and habits in any subject to be taught, as well as theoretical knowledge arises from the requirements of the curriculum. Taking into account the educational role of the lesson, the teacher gets acquainted with the requirements of the curriculum, the content of the topic in the textbook, the course of teaching methods, while choosing the most important issues. When planning an educational task, questions like "what should the student know?" or "what should it be able to do?" can help. In the case of Azerbaijan some efforts have been done to optimize the learning process as for example The National Curriculum, which is a conceptual framework document that outlines the learning outcomes and content standards for general education, the subjects envisaged at each stage of general education, the number of weekly and extracurricular activities, the basic principles for organizing the pedagogical process, assessing and monitoring learning achievements, and the structure of subject curricula covers (Gahramanov, 2006).

Defining educational tasks (goals) in the training process is important. The teacher must carefully analyze the content of the material in the textbook, the recommendations in the teaching aids, so that he can correctly identify the educational tasks in the study of a particular topic. Some topics can show the transition of quantitative changes to qualitative changes and therefore it is possible to exists some shortcomings.

A teacher who aims to develop the personality of a young student and intends to use the optimization of the learning process as a convenient, useful tool prepares for the lesson in advance to achieve this goal. When preparing for lessons, teachers are usually guided by the requirements of the program, the purpose of the lesson, the content of the material, the tools and methods. The teachers should focus on the following when planning lessons:

  1. How the topic is reflected in the syllabus and which requires more attention?

  2. Review additional literature on the subject to be taught.

  3. Specify the tasks facing the lesson. At the end of the lesson, the student should be able to answer the question: "What have I achieved?"

  4. Adapt the program material to the real level of students in advance.

  5. Reconcile the relationship between the levels of younger students, the purpose of the lesson, the system of tools available and the capabilities of the class teacher.

When planning the tasks and development of education, it should be taken into account that many are common to all lessons. For example, they may contribute to: the formation of a worldview on the objectivity of the world, the connection of theory with practice, the continuity of the cognitive process, the establishment of mental activity, organization and responsibility in learning, the development of neatness, persistence in training, culture of communication, literate speech, work habits, aesthetics of training work, etc. These tasks have a kind of universal character, they do not need to be reflected in the lesson plans every time, but the implementation of these tasks in each lesson is the focus. In addition, at a certain stage of work with the class, there are relevant difficulties (work with the book, discipline in the classroom, etc.) that may require an special approach. In this case, the mentioned tasks are already relevant for the class and can be reflected in the plan as relevant tasks or as well in a number of lessons.

Therefore, the specific learning objectives in a lesson should explicate instructional goals using specific language that can be measured for success or failure. Students should be able to describe, evaluate, compare and contrast, apply, differentiate, and so on. And, in turn, instructors can then measure whether their students have learned to do these things or tasks. Properly conceptualized, learning tasks and activities ultimately unite learner behaviors, facilitate social dynamics and clarify what types of assessment are most effective given the assignment deliverables. For this reason, many instructional designers strongly recommend that learning tasks and activities be as authentic to specific contexts as possible (Tatnall, 2020).

In order for the teacher to have a clear idea of ​​the possible system of tasks for the development of students in the learning process, it is also necessary to remember that in the psychological plan, personality is characterized by the interaction of 4 main areas: mental, volitional, emotional and motivational. Therefore, planning the developmental impact of learning should take into account the importance of developing students' intellect, will, emotional motivation, needs and interests. Of course, all areas of a student personality is developed in every lesson. However, there are lessons that can be used to analyze the concepts, facts, generalize, compare, and develop the personality of the student in a more efficient way. Such lessons are critical to intensively develop student’ s thinking and learning skills. For example: the content lessons devoted to the performance of tasks have a particularly active effect on the development of persistence, the ability to overcome difficulties in training. Here the task of developing the voluntary efforts of primary school students is put forward appropriately. An artistic and figurative material can be studied, which may have a profound effect on the emotional sphere of students, giving them joy, anger, sympathy, among others emotions. This is a way to get caught students’ attention to develop interest in the subject.

Teachers facing challenges in planning their responsibilities for developing students' will, emotions, and learning motivations should deepen their knowledge of psychology. According to Løkse, et al. (2017), educational learning objectives and learning outcomes come in many forms and at different levels of complexity and specificity. These levels are described in a diversity of taxonomies, Bloom’s revised taxonomy being one of the most commonly used (Bloom, 1956). This taxonomy comprises three models used to classify learning outcomes in cognitive, affective, and sensory domains. Therefore, completing lesson planning tasks is not just about mechanically defining lesson tasks. The complexity in the planning is that all the tasks set must be interconnected, strengthen each other, and help to solve all problems successfully. The teacher should try to define the educational and developmental tasks of the lesson in accordance with the content of the topic and in the case of deal with sensitive topics psychology of students should always be taken into account.

On the other hand, as it is known, the didactic basis of subject curricula is based on the principles of result-oriented, demand-oriented and personality-oriented. Mardanov, et al. (2002), writes:“Results-oriented - pre-determination of learning outcomes to be achieved by levels of education, grades and subjects, demand oriented-meeting the learning objectives to the needs of society, the state and the individual; personality orientation - includes the inculcation of the necessary life skills and habits, taking into account the inclinations, interests and abilities of each student”.

When planning lessons in the classes the requirements of the subject curricula should be taken into account, as well as the principle of personality orientation and the opportunities of each lesson for the effective development of student personality. Inadequate consideration of the characteristics of the class and students, inability to properly choose the most important among the many tasks, is considered a flaw in the planning of lesson tasks. However, the ability to specify tasks and distinguish the most basic of them is one of the ways to optimize training. So, every teacher should have this ability. It should also be borne in mind that the specification of tasks is successful in the following cases: (1) when it is taking into account the age characteristics and level of understanding of students, (2) when it is known the characteristics of students (or groups of students) of the class.

It is important to mention that training tasks are also influenced by the place allocated to classes in the lesson schedule. If the lesson is held after several demanding lessons, measures should be taken to maintain the students' ability to work and to develop their interest in studying the subject (Novruzlu, 2005).

From the above, it is possible to determine the algorithm of the teacher's activity in planning lesson tasks. This is structured as it follows:

  1. Familiarization with the tasks of education, upbringing and development during the study of the relevant subject, relevant section, the subject of the relevant lesson. This is done through familiarization with the program, the content of the textbook and methodological recommendations.

  2. Specification of the tasks of studying the topic, taking into account the age and other characteristics of the students of the relevant class, their training, education and development.

  3. Identification of a number of key responsibilities for the education, training and development of students.

  4. Specification the main task of the lesson.

The variant of tasks we present to the schools is to choose three or four basic training options from the possible task options shown below.

Educational tasks (objectives) of the lesson:

  • Mastering the following basic concepts, laws and theories (provided by the teacher) in the course of the lesson (objective: reinforcement).

  • To form the following special skills in the relevant subject (provided by the teacher, objective: reinforcement).

Educational tasks (objectives) of the lesson:

  • Formation of the following main worldview ideas of the lesson (the teacher shows those worldview ideas) during the lesson.

  • To study the important national figures during the lesson.

  • İmplementation of labor education responsibilities of young schoolchildren.

With these objectibes students develop moral qualities (patriotism, respect for elders, companionship and friendship, simplicity and humility, kindness and benevolence, collectivism, humanism), behavioral culture, etc. Development tasks that can be successfully addressed while studying the relevant topics in the class which could be:

  • To cultivate the necessary aesthetic views and skills in young schoolchildren.

  • To achieve the formation of the necessary hygienic and physical culture skills and habits.

Tasks for the development of thinking, ideas, emotions, cognitive interests and abilities in young students could be:

  • To form the necessary general learning skills and habits (planning of the answer, comparison, generalization, work with the book, pace of reading and writing, self-control, etc.).

  • To achieve the development of will and persistence in training (objective: solution of problematic tasks, involvement of students in discussions).

  • To developent of emotions in schoolchildren (create joy, surprise, activity, emotions).

  • To develop students' interest in learning (by showing the importance of the issues studied for their development in science, technology and production, including game situations in training) (Mardanov, et al., 2003).

In Azerbaijan for example the “Concept of General Education in the Republic of Azerbaijan” (National Curriculum) reflects the general learning outcomes for primary education. The effective application of its guidelines can helped students to master the following issues provided for in the National Curriculum: to apply the necessary mathematical knowledge and perform simple algorithms, use computer technology; to describe the observed objects and events, to distinguish them according to their characteristic features; to think independently and logically, to express attitudes; to communicate, cooperate, express their views clearly; to follow the rules of cultural behavior, personal hygiene and appropriate safety; to perform the assigned work, as well as work that requires creativity, to apply simple work habits; to present in a simple form the basic knowledge of the Azerbaijani people about the language, moral and spiritual values, national traditions, history, culture, art; to read age-appropriate literary, scientific-mass and informational texts, to separate the main content of the text and express his opinion to it, to use dictionaries, informative books; to develop a fair, caring and tolerant attitude to people, nature, labor, personal and state property, aesthetic perception of reality (Mahmudov, 2008).

It is important also to note that teachers should pay attention to the specification of the lesson tasks based on the study of the characteristics of the students of the class. There are some teachers who put a lot of effort into the lesson, but do not achieve the required results while others achieves the desired result without special effort. The educational impact is in line with the characteristics of students in the classroom: it takes into account their strengths and weaknesses, their interests, arouses response efforts by students themselves. This, of course, increases the effectiveness of training. In order to organize the learning process in this way, it is necessary to study not only the general tasks of education, but also their students well, to know the typical features of the relevant class, as well as the real learning opportunities of each student.

In order help teachers to become deeply acquainted with their students, they need to be guided by an appropriate program that allows them to identify important personality traits, as well as skills and habits that actively influence the effectiveness of students' learning. For this purpose, the following issues are recommended to be approached:

  • Social and labor activity of the student.

  • Moral education.

  • Attitude to training.

  • Formation of learning-cognitive activity skills (ability to distinguish the most important, ability to plan the answer, ability to read and write at the required pace (speed), self-control in training).

  • Persistence in training.

  • Physical development (health, ability to work, fatigue, etc.).

  • Educational impact of the family.

In the first item, opinions about students' social and labor activity are mainly based on the level of voluntary participation of students, how they performed social tasks, and self-service work at school. The idea of moral education is based on the indicators of conscious discipline of young schoolchildren, the rules for students, the observance of norms of behavior in public places and at home. The idea of ​​learning-cognitive activity skills is to understand the importance of learning, to identify and interpret the main and more important idea, to plan the answer, to prepare the solution plan of the problem, to read and write in class, and so on.

The idea of perseverance in training is based on the ability to overcome difficulties in training, to show organization and discipline. Opinions about the state of health are expressed primarily on the basis of the teacher's information, as well as the level of fatigue of the student in class and other activities. Finally, the idea of ​​the educational impact of the family is based on the level of personal example of family members to the school, the level of positive moral and psychological atmosphere in the family. Optional schemes should be developed in order to avoid a written testimonial for each student and although weaknesses need to be identified when the level of formation of any quality of personality needed to be improved.


One of the most important factors to consider for an effective development of the teaching process is the precise delimitation of the learning objectives/tasks. It was found in the literature that in spite of the development of the different learning theories professors still present difficulties to approach this topic.

For this reason, several recommendations were approached to facilitate their work, which can help the teacher to see the weaknesses of the class and individual students. It is important to highlight that when planning lesson tasks and choosing teaching methods proffesors should pay special attention at psychological aspects of the personalities of students.

The education of students is a very complex process where many factors need to be taken into account but undoubtedly the clear delimitation of what is wanted to achieve in every course/lesson/activity is a decisive factor for its optimization.


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Received: February 09, 2021; Accepted: March 15, 2021

*Autor para correspondencia. E-mail:

The author declares that there is no conflict of interest.

The author assumed individually the elaboration of this article.

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