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Revista Cubana de Estomatología

Print version ISSN 0034-7507On-line version ISSN 1561-297X


NAVARRETE ANGULO, Nilda Eugenia  and  PITA SOBRAL, María Angela. Factors related to malocclusion in 3-9-year-old Ecuadorian children. Rev Cubana Estomatol [online]. 2020, vol.57, n.2, e2111.  Epub July 13, 2020. ISSN 0034-7507.


Recognizing the factors potentially related to malocclusion in a given population is crucial to implement preventive actions based on that information.


Determine the factors related to malocclusion in 3-9-year-old Ecuadorian children.


A cross-sectional epidemiological study was conducted of 400 children aged 3-9 years attending pediatric dental clinics at the Central University of Ecuador School of Dentistry. The children's parents answered a number of questions about health, habits and socioeconomic level at the request of a single experienced researcher. Each child underwent extra- and intraoral clinical examination in which the sides of each tooth were observed on a vertical, transversal and sagittal plane, as well as the occlusal side. Verification was made of the presence of occlusal interference, posterior or anterior crossbite and open bite. The data obtained were tabulated onto Excel spreadsheets and the chi-square test was applied (p< 0.05).


Of the total children studied 77% had malocclusion (p< 0.001). The presence of malocclusion in children was not found to have a significant relationship to relatives with malocclusion, low socioeconomic level or breastfeeding for less than 1 year (p> 0.05). An association was found between crossbite and occlusal interference (p< 0.001). No association was observed between open bite and mouth breathing (p= 0.944).


Malocclusion is significantly prevalent. Family inheritance, breastfeeding type and duration, and socioeconomic level do not have a significant relationship to malocclusion. Crossbite and occlusal interference are associated. Mouth breathing may not be the reason for open bite in 3-9-year-old children.

Keywords : malocclusion; habits; occlusal interference; socioeconomic level; pediatric dentistry.

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