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Revista Cubana de Pediatría

On-line version ISSN 1561-3119


DIAZ-ARGUELLES RAMIREZ-CORRIA, Virginia. Deficiencia de ácidos grasos esenciales en el feto y en el recién nacido pretérmino. Rev Cubana Pediatr [online]. 2001, vol.73, n.1, pp. 43-50. ISSN 1561-3119.

It is reported that the long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids are essential in the nutrition of the fetus and of the newborn infant. Both, the omega 3 family 3(W-3) and the omega 3(W-6) have 2 important biological activities, which are the integrity of the cellular membranes and the formation of prostaglandins and thromboxanes. The fetal brain develops early and 60 % of its structrural material are lipids, therefore, there is a relationship between the nutritional status of the mother and the decreasing of nutrients during pregnancy. 70 % of the total number of neurons are divided before term birth and the essential fatty acids play a decesive role. The placenta has a preferential transportation of arachidonic acid (AA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) at the end of the third trimester, since the mechanisms of desaturation and elongation are immature in the term newborn infant. The deficiency of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in the preterm newborn infant affects mainly the brain and retina development in the long term and its manifestations are early hematological disorders, dermatitis and hypotonia, among others. The recommendations made by the FAO/WHO and by the ESPGAN regarding the diet value of the essential fatty acids contained in the formulations of artificial milk, as well as the advantages of biological maternal milk for the newborn infants in this weight group are explained.

Keywords : FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED [genetics]; INFANT, NEWBORN [physiology].

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