Revista Cubana de Medicina Tropical
On-line version ISSN 1561-3054
FERNANDEZ-CALIENES VALDES, Aymé et al. Antimalarial activity of hydroalcoholic extract from Bixa orellana L.. Rev Cubana Med Trop [online]. 2011, vol.63, n.2, pp. 181-185. ISSN 1561-3054.
Introduction: Bixa orellana L. is one species used in traditional herb medicine in several continents. Among the medicinal properties attributed to this plant, the antimalarial action has been included. Objective: to evaluate in vitro and in vivo antimalarial activity of extract from B. orellana grown in Cuba. Methods: the antimalarial activity of the hydroalcoholic extract fro Bija seeds was evaluated in vitro against Plasmodium falciparum Ghana strain and in vivo using a model of murine malaria, that is, Balb/c mice infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA strain. Citotoxicity was determined against MRC-5 human fibroblasts. Additionally, phytochemical composition of the studied extract was preliminarily informed. Results: the extract exhibited IC50 (Medium Inhibitory Concentration) of 11.6 µg/mL, CC50 (Medium Citotoxic Concentration) of 60.2 µg/mL and SI (Selectivity Index) of 5.1. Subcutaneous administration of the extract at a 500 mg/kg dose caused parasitemia reduction of 50.3 ± 5.8 % on infected animals compared with that of the controls. Phytochemical screening was consistent with detection of triterpenoids and/or steroids, alkaloids, lactonic compounds, phenols, tanins and flavonoids. Conclusions: the hydroalcoholic extract from B. orellana seeds grown in Cuba showed in vitro and in vivo moderate antimalarial activity. Bioassay-guided fractioning will allow identifying the molecules responsible for the exhibited extract activity and re-evaluating the potentialities of this extract.
Keywords : Bixa orellana; crude extract; malaria; antimalarial activity; citotoxicity.