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Revista Cubana de Medicina General Integral

Print version ISSN 0864-2125

Abstract

CHAVEZ GONZALEZ, Niuvis; GARCIA RAGA, Mónica; ZALDIVAR SUAREZ, Nuria  and  CHAVEZ GONZALEZ, Leyanis. Diabetic ketoacidosis in children under 15 years. Rev Cubana Med Gen Integr [online]. 2014, vol.30, n.1, pp.93-102. ISSN 0864-2125.

Introduction: diabetic ketoacidosis is a clinical problem and it is the most common cause of hospitalization in children with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus. Objective: to identify the clinical characteristics of diabetic ketoacidosis in children under 15 years. Methods: a descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in 18 patients younger than 15 years admitted to the Paediatric Hospital in Bayamo, Granma, with the diagnosis of diabetic ketoacidosis, from June 2006 to June 2012. Variables such age, sex, precipitating factors, age of onset, daily insulin dose, acute and chronic complications were studied. The contingency coefficient c was determined in order to establish the relationship between the number of ketoacidosis episodes and the usual treatment. Results: the group aged 9-12 years prevailed with a total of 9 cases (50.0%). The most common triggers studied were dietary transgressions present in 10 of the cases studied (55.55%) and omission of treatment in 8 patients (44.44%). The average age of ketoacidosis onset was 6.5 years (SD 2.40), and mean daily insulin dose per kilogram of body weight was 0.8 units (SD 0.23). Chronic complications in 4 patients (22.22%), which included 2 cases of retinopathy and nephropathy were respectively presented. Acute complications were related to treatment, 4 patients with hypokalemia and 2 with cerebral edema. Conclusions: the most affected patients were in the group aged 9-12 years and dietary transgressions and failure of treatment are highlighted among triggers. Ketoacidosis episodes were most frequently associated with conventional treatment.

Keywords : ketoacidosis; transgressions; complications.

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