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Revista de Ciencias Médicas de Pinar del Río

On-line version ISSN 1561-3194

Abstract

LORIGA GARCIA, Omar; PASTRANA ROMAN, Irene  and  QUINTERO PEREZ, William. Clinical-epidemiological characteristics of acute myocardial infarction patients. Rev Ciencias Médicas [online]. 2013, vol.17, n.6, pp.37-50. ISSN 1561-3194.

Introduction: ischemic cardiopathologies, and particularly high ST-segment acute myocardial infarction, constitute the first death cause in the world. Objective: to describe the clinical-epidemiological characteristics of acute myocardial infarction patients from the coronary care unit at Abel Santamaría Cuadrado Teaching General Hospital, in 2011 and 2012. Material and method: observational, descriptive, retrospective cross-sectional study; target group of 644 admitted patients with ST elevation. The data was taken from clinical records. Results: 62% of the patients were at ages 60-79 years, while 84.5% at ages 30-49 years were male. 81.6% were smokers, and 45.5% were diabetics. Topographical localization of the infarctions was: 70.8% of patients with inferior, 22.9% with anterior, and 6.2% with extended anterior. As complications, arrhythmia occurred in the 20% of patients, myocardial insufficiency in 14.9%, and death in 7.7%. 68.5% of patients with arrhythmias had atrial fibrillation. Thrombolysis was used in the 55.2% of patients; low blood pressure occurred as a complication in 30.7% of the cases. Conclusions: acute myocardial infarction was more frequent in older patients, being, at ages under 50 years, five times more frequent in male. The most represented risk factors were smoking and diabetes mellitus. The interior localization was the most frequent, as were arrhythmias among complications and atrial fibrillation in turn among them. Thrombolysis was complicated chiefly by high blood pressure; it would otherwise have been more used.

Keywords : Acute myocardial infarction [complications]; Thrombolytic therapy; Coronary care unit.

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