SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

vol.23 número83Teoría sociocultural: potencialidades para motivar la clase de Historia de Cuba en las universidades índice de autoresíndice de materiabúsqueda de artículos
Home Pagelista alfabética de revistas  

Servicios Personalizados



  • No hay articulos citadosCitado por SciELO

Links relacionados

  • No hay articulos similaresSimilares en SciELO



versión On-line ISSN 1729-8091

EduSol vol.23 no.83 Guantánamo abr.-jun. 2023  Epub 03-Mayo-2023


Original article

Analysis of the strengths, opportunities, weaknesses and threats of the evaluation stage of the institutional educational project

0000-0003-3144-7692José Medel Pérez Cruz1  * 

1 Escuela Pedagógica “Manuel Ascunce Domenech”, Villa Clara. Cuba.


This study made it possible to prepare the matrix of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of the evaluation process of the Institutional Educational Project to strengthen the quality of the processes and results in pedagogical training. The methodological design is descriptive, aimed at identifying the opinions, evaluations and attitudes of the members of the focus group discussion in the workshops. The main results are defined in the strategy matrix establishing the development of a system of dimensions and indicators and a manual that favors the training of teachers in the evaluation process.

Key words: Assessment; FODA strategy; Institutional educational project


The quality of education is a challenge of the 2030 Agenda and is itself one of the Sustainable Development Goals. The evaluation of the quality of education is an indispensable necessity to ensure the management of education systems. In the III Improvement of the National Education System, the objective is to develop the quality of educational processes and the comprehensive training of students.

At present, it is important that educational systems use tools for the diagnosis of the current state of the Institutional Educational Project (IEP). In this sense, the IEP allows the active and transforming participation of the educational agents in the decision making about the activities developed in the institution.

The need for research, responds to two main arguments, the first is the scientific nature of pedagogical research that occupies an important place in the tasks of improvement, with a strategic projection that is contextualized in the professional work done by teachers in the Pedagogical School "Manuel Ascunce Domenech"; and the second responds to the contribution that will constitute the result of the research to strengthen decision making in the improvement of institutional management.

The research carried out uses the study tool that allows determining the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Weaknesses and Threats (SWOT), widely used in the educational context. The internal context of SWOT is composed of strengths and weaknesses, while the external context determines the opportunities and threats.

In the educational context, the SWOT analysis should be used in the processes developed in the institutions. In this sense, the objective of this article is to elaborate the matrix of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of the evaluation process of the Institutional Educational Project, strengthening the quality of the processes and results in pedagogical training.


The IEP aims at the progressive improvement of student learning processes. In this sense, it starts from a knowledge of the institutional reality, considering the demands of its environment and having an adequate vision of the future, projecting a strategy for change.

The planning of the IEP is articulated with the Annual Work Plan (AWP) and the Institutional Curriculum (IC). The IEP and the AWP are clearly linked, in that the AWP concretizes the strategic objectives of the IEP into activities and tasks that are carried out during the school year. The IC is the core of the IEP as it provides a set of guidelines on the content of the teaching-learning process regarding procedures for assessing student performance.

The definitions of the IEP have evolved from a focus on an instrument oriented to the organization of the school, from a document that plans activities to an integral proposal that orients the educational management processes towards objectives that aspire to a defined school model. In our opinion, the IEP should express the aspirations of the educational community regarding the type of institution that is desired for the education of students.

The research assumes as a definition of IEP the one offered by The Central Institute of Pedagogical Sciences CIPS (2017) where it is stated that it is the:

System of actions designed by the educational institution with the involvement of teachers, students, families and community factors, to comply with the purpose and general objectives of the level, to develop the function entrusted to it by society. (p. 11).

The definition reflects the fundamental strategy to materialize the ideals of society and of the man we want to achieve; that is why it encompasses a process of collective construction. The planning and management process of the system of educational activities is composed of a set of strategic actions in a more flexible, participatory way, according to the needs and interests of the different educational agents, which supports the mission, values and principles agreed upon.

The IEP must conceive its evaluation and answer the question: How to systematically evaluate and self-evaluate the activities that are developed, so that the progress achieved in the students allows for reflection and comparison between the situation before its development and the situation after its implementation. It also develops the way to evaluate the results and the impact of the IEP activities on the students.

An interesting proposal is offered by Rivero and González (2018) where the work carried out in the Clodomira Acosta Ferrals Elementary School in improvement proposes that the evaluation stage be stated in the construction of the IEP. In the evaluation of the IEP, Rivero and González (2018) conceive "determining indicators and forms of control" (p. 13), the idea stated allows identifying achievements and difficulties for decision making in the improvement of the IEP.

The evaluation of the IEP is present throughout the process; in the framework of the research the definition of the ICCP (2017) is considered where it refers that:

It should start from the very beginning when the meetings are held to obtain the first opinions and the sensitization of all participants. It should be maintained with a systematic approach to the factors that affect or enable implementation, in order to reduce as much as possible the former and enhance the latter. (p. 15).

The definition of IEP evaluation demonstrates several important ideas related to the process of verifying compliance with objectives and goals. The analysis and interpretation of the information allows making evaluative judgments on the processes and results, as well as transforming and readjusting the project if necessary. The definition goes beyond a descriptive and evaluative assessment, it also conceives a transformative approach for decision making, as well as transforming and readjusting the project if necessary.

In the educational context, the situational analysis of internal and external factors contributes to improving the quality of institutional management and the comprehensive education of students. Leguizamón (2020) in a research conducted states the need to "have instruments for monitoring the Institutional Educational Project (P.E.I)" (p.3). In this sense, Leguizamón (2020) states that "one of the most appropriate tools according to the study conducted is the F.O.D.A" (p.3), we agree with the author that the use of SWOT analysis in the IEP is the most appropriate due to its importance.

The importance of the SWOT analysis lies in the leading role of the educational agents as active promoters of the changes and transformations they implement, as a direct consequence of making a diagnosis of the current situation reflecting the internal and external aspects of the functioning and development of the educational processes. In the current scenarios of the III Improvement, the PEI has to rethink its situational analysis specifically in its evaluation so that it leaves the formality of the instituted and becomes a participatory, democratic and inclusive process.

SWOT analysis is a research tool that had its origin and history in the 1960s-1970s as referred to by Ion and Aranguren (2021) who state the following:

The Stanford Research Institute promoted a study to improve long-term corporate business planning. It was conducted by Robert Stewart, Marion Dosher, Otis Benepe, Birger Lie and Albert Humphrey. They initially stated four issues to be considered in the situational analysis: what is satisfactory in the present, understood as strengths; future opportunities; failures in the present; and future threats: giving rise to the name SOFT (Strengths, Opportunities, Fails and Threats). (p.116)

It is currently widely used in different sectors as a diagnostic tool to determine the external and internal situations of processes, phenomena and facts of the objective reality. Loayza (2020) refers that "SWOT analysis is one of the most essential tools of strategic planning as it allows analyzing the internal and external environment of an organization" (p.8), in this sense we agree with the importance of diagnosing the operation and development of an educational institution.

The SWOT analysis plays an important role in decision-making in institutions when determining the internal and external environment, Peralta (2020) refers that "it is a study tool that allows an analysis of the real and current situation of a company, organization or person to design competitive strategies and to achieve the objectives" (p.20), the purpose expressed by the author offers the possibility of using strategies for the improvement of the quality of management in education.

The research assumes as definition of SWOT analysis the one stated by Ion and Aranguren (2021) where it refers that it allows "the situational analysis of individuals, groups, collectives, organizations, communities and social realities, constituting a socially and scientifically recognized diagnostic tool" (p.115). The definition stated contemplates the representation of the SWOT analysis in a matrix (see Table 1), coinciding this observation with the studies of the researcher Mujica (2016), who proposes the aspects that should be considered to elaborate the matrix listings:

Table 1: SWOT Matrix 

Source: Own elaboration (this table shows how the SWOT analysis data should be represented).


The classification of the study according to its gnoseological objective and chronological dimension is descriptive, because it focuses on reflecting the regularities of phenomena, activities and processes in the evaluation of the IEP rather than on the causal or explanatory analysis of it. The study was conducted during the first semester of the 2019-2020 school years at the "Manuel Ascunce Domenech" Pedagogical School as a continuous process.

Several moments can be distinguished in the study characterized by the use of the particular empirical methods for the realization of the SWOT analysis. The survey was conducted through the group self-evaluation questionnaire instrument, the interview was conducted through focus groups in an interview guide and the observation was conducted through an observation guide.

The SWOT analysis was conducted based on a focus group discussion where information was provided on the attitude of the participants during the group discussion and the opinions expressed by the members. The purpose was to determine the internal factors that constitute the strengths and weaknesses; likewise, it is appropriate to consider the external factors referred to opportunities and threats in the evaluation of the IEP.


A methodological sequence was established for the SWOT analysis in the following three fundamental phases:

Preliminary Phase

The first moment corresponds to the call proposal, the participants were contacted explaining the reasons for the call, the idea to be addressed is presented and the time to work (one hour) is delimited. They were chosen by the criterion of intentionality because in resolution 111/2017 "Procedures for the design, implementation and control of preventive work in pedagogical schools" it is defined that these participants have a key role in the development, monitoring and control of the IEP. Also because of the criterion of compatibility and homogenization of the group in the context of performance, occupation and educational level of the participants in the interest of the objectives proposed for the realization of the workshop.

Table 2: Participants of the two focus groups. 

Source: self - elaboration

This table 2 shows the participants in the workshops, according to the homogenization of their functions, whether they are managers or teachers, they correspond to a focus group.

In this first phase, the date of the workshop, the place corresponding to the Educational Guidance Office and the questions for discussion in the descriptive analysis of the internal and external context of the evaluative component of the IEP were determined. The different instruments used to record the assessments and criteria of the participants were prepared.

Exploratory Phase

During this phase, the workshops of the two focus groups were conducted following the three-step methodology, such as the warm-up, where the group framework was established, the work method was specified through collective discussion, as well as the rules of group work. In the second moment, which corresponded to the central activity, the work was carried out in groups, plenary and each group exposed the external factors: opportunities and threats; and the internal factors: weaknesses and strengths. Finally, the workshops were closed with a plan of action, which took the form of the design of SWOT strategies.

Final Phase

In this last phase, the SWOT analysis matrix of the PEI evaluation process was prepared, which clearly and consistently presents the objective reality in its internal situation context: strengths and weaknesses, as well as the external situation in order to determine the opportunities and threats of the PEI evaluation. It also presents the SWOT strategy matrix and the strategic objectives that were defined in the group discussion with the triangulation of sources.


The results of the observation guide during the application of the two focus group discussions reflect that facial expressions of pleasure, understanding and attention are appreciated in the body movements; they made movements of the hands and heads, exchanges of looks of comfort and satisfaction. The spatial behaviors of the focus group were appreciated with the maintenance of closeness among the group members.

The oral expression of the two focal groups had as regularity that it presented an adequate rhythm of the exposition with a slow and precise speed. In the second focus group, a favorable dynamic for collective discussion was maintained. It is important to point out that in the first focus group significant information is approached with precision and a certain originality since these members have a wide mastery of the topic.

The participants showed a personal involvement in the discussion of the topic due to the presence of interpersonal relationships based on psychological compatibility in the similarity of values and opinions with freedom of expression and strict compliance with the group framework. The psychological climate was satisfactory in the dynamics of both focal groups, feelings, ideas and opinions on the subject were expressed.

The members performed satisfactorily and did not present resistance to the facilitator's presence or role; they had a positive disposition towards the workshop, a climate of trust and security; as well as the liberation of emotions and feelings when talking about the topic. The precise and direct clarification of the characteristics of the workshop allowed a successful development of the discussion of the topic.

The results of the questionnaire application and the opinions of the focus group members were subject to a triangulation of subjects where this study took into account the methodology used by Mujica (2016, p. 3) that allows determining four major processes: external analysis, internal analysis, SWOT matrix and strategy formulation according to the SWOT analysis, which involves determining the problems and strategic objectives.

The main results obtained were collected through the SWOT matrix (Table 3), taking into account the external and internal analysis with their corresponding criteria, which are listed below.

Table 3: SWOT analysis matrix  

The selection of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities or threats made it possible to use the matrix with the four types of SWOT strategies (Table 4). The first is the strategy to survive, whose fundamental purpose is to eliminate the internal weaknesses identified in order to minimize or avoid external threats. The strategy to maintain is based on the use of internal strengths to avoid diminishing or eliminating the impact of external threats. The strategy to grow, allows to improve a detected internal weakness through the effective utilization of one or several external opportunities. The fourth strategy to develop uses internal strengths to take advantage of external opportunities.

Table 4: SWOT strategy matrix 

The main strategic problems to be addressed according to the study conducted are:

  1. The evaluation of the quality of educational processes in the institution.

  2. The integration of the new forms of work of the III Perfectioning in the dynamics of the institutional work system.

  3. The integration of the stages and components of the PEI in terms of strengthening evaluation.

  4. The establishment of the parameters and indicators for measuring the evaluation process of the Institutional Educational Project PEI.

  5. The training of the institution's personnel to provide a better service in the evaluation process of the PEI.

It is evident that the results state new challenges in the educational context that demand a series of actions aimed at improving the processes of educational quality with the capacity of the educational institution to offer a response and make a decision when the evaluation of the IEP is carried out. It is important that when determining the strategies and objectives to achieve an end, we have a clear and defined What to evaluate, When will it be evaluated, How will it be evaluated, With what will it be evaluated, and For what will it be evaluated; these key questions will determine the types and scope of the evaluation of the IEP.


The SWOT analysis is a tool that allows for a descriptive study in the evaluation of favorable and unfavorable aspects in the internal and external contexts of an educational institution.

The results of the SWOT analysis matrix and strategy demonstrate the need for a system of dimensions and indicators for the evaluation of the IEP and a manual that integrates its components and stages in terms of teacher training.

Referencias bibliográficas

Instituto Central de Ciencias Pedagógicas (ICCP). (2017). Proyecto educativo: un acercamiento a su construcción. Documento de trabajo para la consulta. [ Links ]

Ion, R. y Aranguren, E. (2021). Replanteamiento epistemológico del análisis situacional DAFO / FODA en Trabajo Social. Cuadernos de Trabajo Social, 34(1), 115-125. [ Links ]

Leguizamón, C. (2020). F.O.D.A Proyecto Estratégico de Estudio e Innovación del P.E.I. ]

Loayza, I.Y. (2020). Análisis FODA de la universidad técnica de Machala.”20YARITZA.pdfLinks ]

Mujica, R. (2016). FODA aplicación en el contexto educativo. Revista Tecnológica educativa docente 2.0, 4 (1), 3-7. ]

Peralta, M. (2020). FODA. Logos Boletín Científico de la Escuela Preparatoria. 7 (2), 20-21. ]

Rivero, Y. y González, M. (2018). Un acercamiento a la construcción del Proyecto Educativo Institucional de la escuela primaria en perfeccionamiento Clodomira Acosta Ferrals. Ciencia Universitaria, 16 (1), 1-20. [ Links ]

Received: June 15, 2022; Accepted: October 10, 2022

*Author for the mail:

Creative Commons License