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Podium. Revista de Ciencia y Tecnología en la Cultura Física

versión On-line ISSN 1996-2452

Rev Podium vol.16 no.2 Pinar del Río mayo.-ago. 2021  Epub 02-Ago-2021


Original article

Didactical alternative for the formation of the tactical skills in 11-12 aged taekwondo athletes

Yoismel Moya Bell1  *

Lida de la Caridad Sánchez Ramírez1

Luis Bertot Ortega1

1Universidad de Oriente. Cuba.


The teaching learning of tactics is oriented towards the formation of combat skills, in such a way, tactical behavior configures the mode of action that shows the level reached in this process. The referred skills are conceptualized from two perspectives: technical-tactical skills and tactical skills. The first lacks a holistic vision that integrates the physical, theoretical and psychological components; on the contrary, the second one highlights their interaction and recognizes some singularities of the tactic. However, the proposals for didactic actions from the development of the class are insufficient. Consequently, the training of tactical skills in Taekwondo has been limited; in fact, the tactical behavior of taekwondo players in the 11-12 year category exhibits limitations. This article proposes a didactic strategy for the treatment of tactics, based on elements of class dynamics. All the specialists consulted agreed on the relevance, applicability and social relevance of the proposal, which was evidenced in the values obtained by consensus through the cut-off points. The methods used were observation, analysis-synthesis, functional structural systemic, and consultation with specialists through a survey, empirical frequency distribution and cut-off points.

Keywords: Didactical strategy; Tactic; Dynamic; Tactical skills; Taekwondo.


The teaching-learning of taekwondo in the 11-12 years old category is a complex pedagogical process, oriented simultaneously, although with different intentions towards technical, tactical, theoretical, psychological and physical training. The teaching-learning of tactics is particularized by the dialectical interaction of the technical, physical, theoretical and psychological components, in favor of satisfactory competitive results and the integral formation of taekwondo athletes. The skills to be trained through the didactic treatment of tactics are conceived in the current literature from two theoretical positions: technical-tactical skills and tactical skills. In the first case, the authors (Ibarra, Soto, Martín & Heredia, 2015; Milán & Cabrales, 2016; González, Alava, Alomoto & Barreto, 2017) point to the modification of the biomechanical structure of the technique according to the demands of the tactical situation, thus conditioning its "rational use". Although they emphasize the use of problematic situations as the nucleus for the didactic treatment of tactics, the rational procedures for their solution transcend technical preparation, since they are not its object.

For their part, Kermarrec (2015) and Guillén and De la Rosa (2019) assume "tactical skills". In this particular, they recognize the training process from an integrative perspective, in which different knowledge underlies (making the technique, employing psychic resources and physical preparation, creating the favorable contextual framework) to achieve effective decision-making. They denote the complexity of these skills, signifying their dependence on perceptual, cognitive and motor capacities. In the same way, the cited researchers emphasize the need to value the knowledge already instituted in the cognitive structure of the learning subjects, in favor of a meaningful learning of the referred skills, a position shared by the authors of this article.

Classes observation allowed revealing insufficiencies in the teaching-learning of tactics in the referred ages, such as: the simplification of solutions in tactical tasks, scarce use of the opportunities offered by the situations in order to achieve the most appropriate tactical solution, insufficiencies in the treatment of weaknesses and psychomotor potentialities of taekwondo athletes, predominance of contents, tasks and methods that limit the formation of tactical skills. From this emanates, as a necessity, the need to establish new didactic actions that favor this process.

According to what has been expressed, a limited understanding of the particularities of the didactic treatment of tactics is evidenced. Thus, the purpose of this study is: to guide the didactic procedure for the systematization and evaluation of tactical tasks, from its orientation and understanding, according to the development of the teaching-learning of tactics in taekwondo athletes, category 11-12 years old. For this purpose, a didactic strategy containing a system of actions is designed, based on elements of the dynamics of the class.


From a population of 36 taekwondo athletes of the 11-12 years old category of the "Antonio Maceo" district, 16 athletes (eight females and males) were randomly selected as a sample, representing 44.4 %, in order to form two teams to participate in the municipal event of this category. For the development of the research, the following methods were used.

From the theoretical level, analysis-synthesis for the theoretical systematization, regarding the teaching-learning process of tactics, which evaluation took into account the observance of the didactic components used to develop such process. This conditioned from a structural-functional systemic perspective, the logical configuration of the strategy, the argumentation of its constituent elements, phases, actions and the system of dialectical relations for the achievement of the resulting quality.

At the empirical level, structured and participant observation was used, applied through a protocol during the classes, based on the following aspects: generation of the most favorable psychic and motor conditions, use of tactical knowledge and previous experiences to motivate the class, analysis and discussion of the tactical tasks, aspects corrected during the tactical actions, treatment of individual potentialities and limitations of tactical order, forms of evaluation of the actions, analysis of the class with emphasis on the tactical aspects and recommendations in this regard.

For the theoretical validation of the proposal, specialists were consulted by means of a correspondence survey via e-mail; mixed questions were asked with the aim of arguing the answers. The following indicators were consulted: I1 convenience of the theoretical basis of the strategy, I2 pertinence of the phases, I3 coherence of the aspects for the evaluation of tactical behavior, I4 possibilities of application of the proposed didactic strategy, I5 impact of the proposal. The evaluative scale used was: C1 very adequate (MA), C2 quite adequate (BA), C3 adequate (A), C4 not very adequate (PA), C5 not adequate (NA).

The selection of the specialists took into account the following requirements: pedagogical experience in taekwondo or managerial experience in the sports system, having more than five years of work experience in the training of athletes, having a basic professional qualification of Bachelor of Physical Culture, optimum willingness to collaborate with the research. Correspondingly, 20 specialists were chosen, who had a wide pedagogical trajectory in taekwondo or directive in the sports system. Fourteen of them collaborated abroad, in Venezuela, Ecuador and Peru: Venezuela, Ecuador and Peru. Three of them worked in the national teams of these countries and in Cuba.

In the case of the chosen specialists, a High Performance Specialist (FCTKD Methodologist), a Combat Sports Master, two taekwondo specialists (Eide Santiago de Cuba), 16 Physical Culture Graduates; of these, two directors of the Provincial and Municipal Directorate of Inder, four work at Eide, in Santiago de Cuba. All of them have more than five years of pedagogical or managerial experience in the sports system, with an average of 17.5 years; all of them were willing to collaborate with the research.

The information obtained was processed in the SPSS statistical processor, version 19, by means of the empirical distribution of frequencies and the determination of the cut-off points for the determination of the level of consensus of the specialists in relation to the aspects consulted.


During the observation, it was observed that in 100 % (25) of the classes, little reference is made to the tactical knowledge learned as an anchor for the development of the new activities; likewise, it was observed the insufficient use of the potentialities provided by the content to promote reflection, argumentation and application of what was learned about the new activities. In 64 % (16) of these, during the execution of the activities, emphasis is made on aspects directed to the biomechanical structure of the movement, to the detriment of the functional particularities conditioning its effectiveness.

On the other hand, only 44 % (11) take into account the psychomotor (perseverance, decision, speed, strength, endurance, technical level) and anthropometric (weight, height) particularities during the development of the situations. Although in 100 % (25) of the classes a final analysis is made, only in 36 % (9) recommendations on tactical aspects are made.

Regarding the specialists, Fleitas, Mesa and Guardo (2013) are assumed; hence, for the purposes of this research, a specialist is understood as a sports professional who is related to the formative or directive activity. The selection of the specialists is based on the established requirements; their appraisals are valid to demonstrate the pertinence, applicability and feasibility of any practical contribution, taking as a starting point the experience they possess in the concrete-thought.

The consultation of specialists showed the pertinence, applicability and social relevance of the proposal. In this sense, 100 % recognized the pertinence of the proposal, in terms of a conscious and self-regulated tactical behavior, through the use of tactical tasks as activating elements of the psychic and motor activity for the availability of the necessary resources in the fulfillment of the demanded requirements. In addition, reflection was highlighted as an essential element that occurs throughout the process and allows the progressive movement from dependence to independence and self-regulation in the tactical behavior of the athletes of taekwondo. Likewise, the social relevance and applicability of the strategy was recognized, resulting from the consistency and coherence in its structure and functioning. This is represented in the following table (Table 1).

Table 1. - Specialists' criteria according to the indicators 

The totality highlighted the novelty of the designed actions, it was considered feasible to use them with a level of contextualization, generating demands similar to those of the competitive context. Likewise, the design of the tactical tasks from the proposed contents was positively evaluated, as well as the use of methodological procedures for the organization of the load; all this with evaluations between very adequate and quite adequate. The first phase of the strategy (initial diagnosis of taekwondo athletes) was evaluated as very adequate by all the specialists, which showed the pertinence of the determination of the aspects to be evaluated in the tactical behavior and the information they provide for the development of the process.

The pertinence of the second phase (design of the non-personal components and organization of the loads) was evaluated as very adequate by 15 specialists and five as quite adequate. This shows the awareness of the importance of the previous organization of the process and the corresponding loads to prevent improvisation in the conduction of the process with intentional actions and a high scientific and methodological character. Although the teacher's experience stands out. The third phase (Orientation and understanding of tactical tasks) was evaluated as very adequate by 13 specialists, seven of them qualified it as quite adequate. This shows the importance of performing a good orientation of the tactical tasks, so that, firstly, a favorable disposition for learning is generated; secondly, the active, conscious and reflexive participation of taekwondo athletes is promoted from understanding and internalizing the objective of the tactical tasks. Understanding was highlighted as a novel and necessary element that favors the training activity, through the tactical representation of the tasks. Consequently, the mobilization of tactical knowledge and motor particularities to meet the requirements demanded in this training process.

The fourth phase (Systematization of tactical tasks) had a superior behavior, with a qualification of very adequate by 14 of the respondents and quite adequate by six. In this case, the leading role of taekwondo athletes was highlighted, the need to guide them by means of precise orientations was recognized, without giving them the final answer. Likewise, the search for variants of solutions as a way to promote creative tactical thinking, with the purpose of avoiding behavioral patterns, was pondered. The fifth phase (Control and evaluation of tactical behavior in the training context) was also evaluated as very adequate and quite adequate by 15 and 5 specialists. Several actions constituted transcendental elements. First of all, the systematic and compulsory analysis of tactical responses; the demand by the teacher, of the arguments justifying one or another tactical response, figured as a novel and pertinent element. The promotion of self-evaluation and reciprocal evaluation was recognized as a factor favoring work feedback and the social construction of knowledge.

In general, the didactic strategy for the teaching-learning of tactics in taekwondo athletes category 11-12 years was considered as applicable by 100 % of the specialists consulted. On the other hand, the values obtained at the cut-off points determine the values of the interval in which the qualitative parameters Very adequate and fairly adequate will be included. To determine this range, the N-P values calculated for each aspect evaluated are compared with the cut-off points to determine the category (parameter) assigned by consensus by the specialists to each of them. The steps are described below (Table 2), (Table 3) and (Table 4).

Table 2. - Construct cumulative frequency table 

Table 3. - Construct cumulative relative frequency table 

Table 4. - Find the image of each of the cell values in the table above, by the inverse of the normal curve 

The cut-off points are obtained by dividing the sum of the values corresponding to each column by the number of steps, N is the result of dividing the sum of the sums by the product of the number of categories by the number of steps, P are the averages. N-P for this case: N-P is the average value given by the experts consulted to each step of the methodology. The cut-off points made it possible to determine the category or degree of adequacy of each step of the strategy, according to the opinion of the experts consulted. For this purpose, the following is specified (Table 5).

Table 5 - N-P values of the evaluative categories 

According to the above scale, the steps of the methodology created by the researcher have the following categories (Table 6).

Table 6. - Indicators and categories 

Hence, since all the N-P values are less than 0.7888 (cut-off point or upper limit for the Very adequate category), most aspects are evaluated as Very adequate. By consensus, the specialists considered that this practical contribution constitutes a theoretical and methodological construct that is pertinent, coherent and applicable on the basis of its argumentation.

Didactic strategy for the formation of tactical skills in taekwondo athletes, 11-12 years old category

Strategies as an educational scientific result have been conceptualized from various perspectives, depending on the object of transformation (pedagogical, educational, didactic, methodological, teaching, and learning). Numerous authors have referred to this (Díaz and Hernández, 2002; Feo, 2010; Hernández, Recalde and Luna, 2015; Jiménez and Robles, 2016; Flores et al., 2017; Campusano and Díaz, 2017). The present research is circumscribed to the teaching-learning of tactics in taekwondo athlete, 11-12 aged category, which facilitates the elucidation of the type of strategy to assume, a didactic strategy. According to Rodríguez and Rodríguez (2011):

"It is the projection of a system of short, medium and long term actions that allows the transformation of the teaching-learning process in a subject, level or institution, based on its components and that allows the achievement of the proposed objectives in a specific time" (p.24).

According to the aforementioned authors, strategies, regardless of their object, synthesize their structure in the following logic: information gathering or diagnostic phase, characterization phase of the desired moment, programming-implementation or execution phase, evaluation phase (p.22). For the conception of the present construct, such reasoning is assumed, although its systemic structuring is made explicit.

The present strategy is conceived as an open system, in which its theoretical support justifies the singularities of the actions, the general objective, environment, input, process, output and feedback are also determined (Figure 1).

Fig. 1. - Didactic strategy for the formation of tactical skills in taekwondo athletes, category 11-12 years old 

The didactic strategy contains actions of both the teacher and the taekwondo athletes, where the starting point is the determination of the initial state of learning in order to move towards the desired state. The conception of the strategy requires premises, among which are identified: previous preparation of taekwondo athletes, in particular, in the motor actions to be developed; willingness of teachers to accept possible changes in their pedagogical work; existence and conditions of material resources for the development of tactical tasks.

Similarly, requirements are specified; in this sense, the teacher must: determine the general and individual characteristics of the group through the initial diagnosis; conceive the training process as a space for the sporting and integral formation of taekwondo athletes; achieve an active and communicative process, so as to guarantee the disposition for learning; propitiate through didactic methods, the mobilization in a logical sequence of previous tactical knowledge that will be the basis for the formation of tactical skills; act as a facilitator during the analysis and discussion of tactical tasks, while considering the conscious performance of the athletes; must propitiate the critical sense. The strategy referred to is made up of phases, which, in turn, specify the didactic actions.

In this sense, the dialectical relationship of coordination between the phases and between the actions and subordination of the actions with respect to the corresponding phases is erected. From these assumptions, it contributes to the development of tactical behavior as a concrete expression of the level of training achieved in tactical skills. The teacher is in charge of directing the strategy, as he/she must be aware of the role he/she plays as the person in charge of the training process. This is composed of five phases: initial diagnosis of taewondo athletes, design of non-personal components and organization of loads, orientation and understanding of tactical tasks, systematization of tactical tasks and evaluation of tactical behavior in the training context.

Objective of the didactic strategy: To orientate the didactic procedure for the systematization and evaluation of tactical tasks, from its orientation and understanding, in function of the development of the teaching-learning of tactics in taekwondo athletes, category 11-12 years old.

First phase: initial diagnosis of taekwondo athletes, which objective is to assess their level of learning and tactical behavior. This stage consists of the application of the instrument developed to know the initial state, limitations and potentialities that are presented. For this purpose, the following aspects are used: use of preparatory actions, management of the combat distance, use of advantageous situations, solution of disadvantageous situations, variability of tactical responses, choice of the right moment and effectiveness of the tactical response.

Second phase: design of the non-personal components and organization of the loads, which intention is to determine the objectives, contents, methods, evaluation tools, tactical tasks and workloads according to the periodization structures used. In the case of the objectives, their formulation should highlight the tactical skills, specifying, at the beginning, their development from laterality (from the front, from behind) and verticality (to the trunk, to the head). The tactical content includes tactical knowledge (argumentative, procedural, rules of combat), tactical skills (attacking, counterattacking, defending) and values (courage, perseverance, independence, decision, self-control and self-esteem); this was developed through the method of regulating situations and solutions (Morales, 2004).

The tactical tasks included: preparatory actions, attack, counterattack, defense, combined work. Their development requires a progressive increase in the level of complexity.

Third phase: orientation and understanding of tactical tasks, aimed at mobilizing cognitive, metacognitive and affective resources in the assessment of tactical tasks, so as to contribute to their effective resolution. In this, the tactical knowledge and previous experiences, interests, motivations of the athletes are stimulated through the guidance activity of the teacher, mediated by a heuristic approach. Hence, questions are used to guide learning. However, the aim is to use questions that, when assessing the demands of the tactical tasks posed, lead them to focus attention on relevant aspects for their solution, in addition to raising the conscious nature of the process. From this perspective, the significant appropriation of the referred culture is promoted. In turn, it enables conscious decision making and the assumption of a coherent tactical behavior. The achievement of this objective requires the teacher to systematically promote the assessment of the motor and anthropometric conditions of the student and the opponent he/she is facing.


  • To motivate the activity.

  • To orient the tactical tasks and the conditions for their development.

  • To propitiate the evaluation of tactical tasks from personal potentialities and limitations.

Taekwondo athletes

  • Reflect on the requirements demanded by the oriented tasks.

  • Evaluate the resources available for the fulfillment of the demands posed

  • Elaborate possible motor solutions.

Fourth phase: systematization of tactical tasks, aimed at implementing, through motor activity, oriented tactical tasks. In this phase, while strengthening the understanding of tactical tasks, it contributes to the motor development of athletes through systematization; in a unique way, essential dialectical relationships are established between the two phases. In this case, the progression in teaching and the creation of conditions similar to the competitive context is essential to achieve the generalization of tactical knowledge to similar competitive situations. The teacher's help should be centered on suggestions, orientations and questions.


  • Observe the development of tactical actions.

  • Correct and reinforce the tactical behavior according to the goal set.

  • Encourage the variability of tactical solutions.

Taekwondo athletes

  • Create the conditions for the development of the actions.

  • Execute tactical actions.

  • Search for variants of solution.

  • Self-regulate tactical behavior.

  • Collaborate with your partner in the fulfillment of tasks.

Fifth phase: evaluation of tactical behavior in the training context; its objective is to control and evaluate the level of tactical behavior achieved, emphasizing reflection on ways to solve errors. The control is a systematic process, as it is carried out throughout the class, in order to detect errors in time, determine their causes, as well as evaluate possible solutions. Thus, the control of tactical behavior in the class is carried out during the execution of the actions, during breaks (micropauses and macropauses), at the end of the class through analysis and through pedagogical tests. This phase also constitutes a learning space since taewondo athletes evaluate the level of compliance with the tactical tasks, it is enriched by the criteria of others and expresses their own. To this end, the pedagogical intervention is focused on provoking reflective and communicative processes.


  • Demand explanations, arguments and demonstrations of tactical responses.

  • Encourage the exchange of criteria with respect to the oriented tactical tasks.

  • Evaluate and propitiate other ways of evaluation (self-evaluation and reciprocal evaluation).

Taekwondo athletes

  • Reflect critically on the actions.

  • Evaluate the tactical behavior of your partner and self-evaluate your own.

  • Make argumentative judgments about the fulfillment of tactical tasks.

  • Show their tactical behavior.


In synthesis, the distinctive elements of this proposal are centered on the novelty of the actions to guarantee the active and collective construction of knowledge, signifying the dialectic relationship between activity and communication from the components of dynamics, elements not exhausted in the theoretical references addressed. The didactic conception assumed is not only consistent with the formation of practitioners capable of thinking and acting consciously, but it is also transcendental for their integral formation and social interaction. From this vision, it contributes to the development of sports training, in particular, the dynamics of teaching-learning of tactics in taekwondo athletes, category 11-12 years old.


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Received: April 22, 2020; Accepted: April 28, 2021

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