SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

vol.53 issue3Chemical composition and apparent digestibility of green “orito” banana (Musa acuminata AA) meal in growing pigsEffect of the inclusion of Azolla filiculoides meal on the growth and survival of red tilapia small fish (Oreochromis mossambicus x O. niloticus) author indexsubject indexarticles search
Home Pagealphabetic serial listing  


Services on Demand




  • Have no cited articlesCited by SciELO

Related links

  • Have no similar articlesSimilars in SciELO


Cuban Journal of Agricultural Science

Print version ISSN 0864-0408On-line version ISSN 2079-3480

Cuban J. Agric. Sci. vol.53 no.3 Mayabeque July.-Sept. 2019  Epub Sep 01, 2019



Effect of taro (Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott) meal on the productive performance and morphometry of the gastrointestinal tract of fattening pigs

W. Caicedo1  2  * 

J. Sanchez1 

M. Pérez1 

J. Vargas1 

E. Samaniego1 

E. Aragón1 

A. Flores1 

1Universidad Estatal Amazónica, Departamento de Ciencias de la Tierra, Paso Lateral S/N Km 2 ½ Vía a Napo. Puyo, Pastaza, Ecuador.

2Granja Agropecuaria Caicedo, km 3 ½Vía a Madre Tierra. Puyo, Pastaza, Ecuador.


In order to evaluate the effect of taro (Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott) meal on the productive performance and morphometry of the gastrointestinal tract of fattening pigs, 16 castrated male animals as a result of an alternate crossbreeding of Largewhite x Duroc x Pietrain were used, with an initial liveweight of 69 kg. They were distributed into two equal groups of eight pigs and each pig constituted an experimental unit. Two treatments were evaluated: a control diet T0 (corn and protein concentrate of pigs) and T40 (substitution of corn in 40% for taro tuber meal), according to a completely randomized design, and an analysis of variance was also carried out. Daily food intake (DFI), daily weight gain (DWG), food conversion (FC), final weight (FW), carcass yield (CY) and dorsal fat (DF) were determined. In addition, the GIT, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, caecum and liver of the animals were weighed and measured. There was no effect (P> 0.05) for the DFI, DWG, FC, CY and DF. Likewise, there was no effect (P> 0.05) for the weight of the GIT, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, caecum and liver. There were also no differences (P> 0.05) for the elongation of the GIT, small intestine, large intestine and cecum. Under the conditions of this study, the use of taro tuber meal as a partial substitution of corn in the diet is feasible, since it does not have a negative influence on the indicators of productive performance nor on the morphometry of the gastrointestinal organs of fattening pigs.

Keywords: energy food; pig fattening; dehydration; taro byproducts


Pig is an important component of many of the traditional diets because almost all parts of the pig can be consumed. It contributes to human nutrition because pork consumption has several benefits. For example, it constitutes a valuable source of proteins and essential amino acids that humans have to obtain from external sources, since they cannot synthesize them. In addition, intramuscular or subcutaneous pig fat constitutes a valuable energy source (FAO 2018).

One of the biggest problems faced by pig rearing is related to production cost, since it is based on cereals and soybean, causing the small producer not to obtain an economic return for raising the animals. In this context, it is necessary to look for alternative foods with good nutritional content, and that do not directly compete with those for humans (Caicedo et al. 2015).

In Pastaza province, in the Ecuadorian Amazon Region (EAR), there is a great availability of alternative foods, among which taro tubers stand out, with a cultivation area of ​​200 hectares and an average yield of 38 t/ha. Out of these, 80% is used for the export market and domestic consumption, while the remaining 20% ​​are by-products of tubers that do not meet the standards of form and size established by the market for human consumption (GADPP 2014).

These tubers have a good nutrient content and have lower cost than cereals (Caicedo et al. 2015). However, in their natural state, they have a high content of humidity and secondary metabolites, so it is necessary to perform drying processes for the preparation of meals and, in this way, obtain improvements in the use of these nutrients for pig fattening (Sánchez et al. 2018).

The several parts that compose the GIT of pigs are specialized to perform different functions, which are ingestion, digestion, absorption and excretion of food. Some reports state that pigs that have alternative diets suffer changes of the gastrointestinal tract (Savón et al. 2008 and Ly et al. 2014). In this sense, it is necessary to carry out morphometric evaluations of the GIT of these animals, to study the digestion pattern of these foods. Other studies report that the intake of alternative foods stimulates the pancreas to secrete digestive juice, pepsin production in the stomach and bile secretion in the liver, so these physiological aspects could cause morphometric changes with a greater development of these organs (Mejía 2017).

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of taro (Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott) meal on the productive performance and morphometry of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of fattening pigs.


Location. This study was carried out in the Programa de Porcinos del Centro de Investigación, Posgrado y Conservación Amazónica (CIPCA) of the Universidad Estatal Amazónica (UEA). CIPCA is located in the Ecuadorian Amazon Region (EAR), between Pastaza and Napo provinces. This area has a semi-warm or humid subtropical climate, with precipitations ranging between 4,000 and 5,000 mm per year. It is located at an altitude of 584 meters above sea level, with relative humidity of 87% and average minimum and maximum temperature of 18 to 36 ºC (Uvidia et al. 2014).

Preparation of taro meal. Taro tubers were acquired in Teniente Hugo Ortiz parish and did not meet the size, shape, or weight requirements for sale in the market for human consumption. Subsequently, they were transferred to CIPCA and then washed for 30 minutes in a 3 % solution of hypochlorite in the water, cleaned and drained. Later, they were placed under cover for 2 h and cut into slices. Pre-drying was carried out under plastic cover for 8 h and after that, they were dried in an industrial rotary dryer (Burmester brand) at 70 ° C for two hours. Finally, it was milled in a semi-industrial mill (TRAPS brand, TRF 300G model) with a mesh of 0.25 mm, packed in hermetic bags and stored for 10 days before use.

Management of animals and facilities. Animals were managed according to the guidelines of Bienestar Animal de la República de Ecuador (AGROCALIDAD 2017) and the experimental protocol according to Sakomura and Rostagno (2007). For this study, 16 castrated male animals, resulting from an criss crossing of Largewhite x Duroc x Pietrain were used, with an initial liveweight of 69 kg, distributed into two groups of eight pigs each, and every pig was considered as an experimental unit. Animals were housed in individual metal cages of 1.80 m x 0.60 m (1.08 m2) for 33 days (five of adaptation to diets and 28 in experimentation). Each pen was provided with a hopper feeder and a nipple drinker water troughs, located in a barn with walls of 1.2 m high and concrete floor. Water was available at will and mean room temperature in the unit was 25 ° C.

Food management. Treatments consisted of two diets: a control diet T0 (corn and protein concentrate for pigs) and T40 (substitution of corn for 40 % of taro tuber meal). Diets were formulated according to NRC (2012) for fattening pigs (table 1). Intake was adjusted according to the liveweight of animals (Rostagno et al. 2011). Food was provided twice a day, at 8:00 am and 3:00 pm, divided into two equal parts.

Table 1 Composition and contribution of the experimental diets under dry basis (DB) 

Ingredients, % Levels of substitution of corn for taro tuber meal, %
0 40
Yellow corn 63 23
Wheat meal 9.0 9.0
Taro tuber meal - 40
Protein concentrate for pigs 27 27
Mineral premix for pigs1 0.5 0.5
Sodium chloride 0.5 0.5
Calculated nutrients
ME, kJ g MS-1 13.71 13.12
CP, % 15.84 15.79
CF, % 3.23 3.70
Cost, dollars kg DM-1 0.60 0.50

1Premix of vitamins and minerals for finishing pigs (Vit A, 2,666,660 UI; Vit D3, 533,300 UI; Vit E, 4,667 UI; Vit K3, 1,200 mg; Vit B1, 200 mg; Vit B2, 13,336 mg; Vit B6, 133 mg; Vit B12, 6.667 μg; Folic acid, 34 mg; Niacin, 10.000 mg; Pantothenic, 666.666 mg; Biotin, 20 mg; Choline, 62 g; Iron, 40 mg; Copper, 86.805 mg; Cobalt, 334 mg; Manganese, 30,000 mg; Zinc, 46,666 mg; Selenium, 67 mg; Iodine, 400 mg; Antioxidant, 40 g; Vehicle qsp, 1,000 g); 2BHT; 3Calculation based on NRC (2012). Source: created by the authors

Productive indicators. After being selected for the experiment, pigs were dewormed with Fenbendazole at a rate of 10 g 100 kg LW-1. Animals were individually weighed every 14 days on a 200 kg capacity Cardinal scale. Productive performance indicators under study were daily food intake (DFI), daily weight gain (DWG), food conversion (FC) and final weight (FW) according to Lezcano et al. (2014), and carcass yield (CY) and back fat (BF) regarding Paredes et al. (2017).

Morphometric evaluations of the GIT and accessory organs. At the end of the 28-day experimental period, animals were fasted for 8 h and weighed later. Subsequently, they were sacrificed with the use of an electric stunner and bleeding by cardiac puncture (Ly et al. 2013). For the collection of intestinal samples, the abdomen was immediately opened from the sternum to the pubis and the complete GIT was exposed (Hou et al. 2010).

The GIT was divided into stomach, small intestine, large intestine and caecum. The organs were isolated and emptied (Grecco et al. 2018). The digestive contents of different sections of the GIT were not taken into account. Weights were recorded on a Camry scale with an accuracy of ± 1 g and measured with a tape measure with a fidelity of 1 cm (Ayala et al. 2014). In addition, liver weight was recorded and means of weights and lengths were analyzed as relative weight to the liveweight.

Statistical analysis and experimental design. The experiment was managed according to a completely randomized design. The analysis of variance was carried out according to recommendations of Steel et al. (1997). In the cases in which significant differences (P<0.05) were found, means were contrasted by Fisher (1954) test. Analyzes were conducted with the application of the statistical program Infostat (Di Rienzo et al. 2012).


Productive indicators. No differences (P> 0.05) were found among treatments for the productive indicators under study: DFI, DWG, FC, FW, CY and DF (table 2).

Table 2 Productive indicators of fattening pigs fed with taro tuber meal  

Variables Levels of substitution of corn for taro tuber meal, % SE± P value
0 40
Initial weight (kg) 69.00 69.00 0.70 P=0.9999
DFI (kg) 2.96 2.95 0.01 P=0.6985
DWG (kg pig-1 day-1) 0.98 0.98 0.02 P=0.9999
FC (kg kg-1) 3.01 3.00 0.05 P=0.9475
FW (kg) 96.50 96.00 0.43 P=0.8699
CY (kg) 81.06 80.81 0.72 P=0.8323
DF (mm) 21.05 22.5 0.01 P=0.5572

DFI (daily food intake), DWG (daily weight gain), FC (food conversion), FW (final weight), CY (carcass yield), DF (dorsal fat), SE (standard error).

Morphometric indicators. Table 3 shows the relative weight of GIT and accessory organs of fattened pigs fed with taro tuber meal, expressed in g kg-1 of body weight. There were no differences (P> 0.05) for the weight of the GIT, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, caecum and liver.

Table 3 Relative weight of GIT and accessory organs of fattening pigs, fed with taro tuber meal g kg-1 of body weight+ 

Variables Levels of substitution of corn for taro tuber meal, % SE± P value
0 40
Body weight, kg 96.00 95.50 0.61 P=0.9481
GIT 53.13 52.18 0.25 P=0.6140
Stomach 9.49 9.09 0.28 P=0.4226
Small intestine 20.00 20.09 0.64 P=0.4324
Large intestine 23.64 23.00 0.57 P=0.4216
Caecum 3.64 3.64 0.01 P=0.9999
Liver 31.37 30.91 0.36 P=0.4223

GIT (gastrointestinal tract), SE (standard error)

+Weight of empty and fresh organs

Table 4 shows the longitudinal measurements of digestive organs in cm kg-1 of body weight of fattening pigs fed with taro tuber meal. There was no effect (P> 0.05) among treatments for the elongation of the GIT, small intestine, large intestine and caecum of animals.

Table 4 Measurements of digestive organs in cm kg-1 of body weight of fattening pigs, fed with taro tuber meal  

Variables Levels of substitution of corn for taro tuber meal, % SE± P value
0 40
Body weight, kg 96.00 95.50 0.61 P=0.9481
GIT+ 41.21 42.49 0.47 P=0.7487
Small intestine 31.21 32.50 0.58 P=0.6231
Large intestine 10.00 10.00 0.51 P=0.9973
Caecum 0.70 0.71 0.40 P=0.8459

GIT (gastrointestinal tract), SE (standard error)

+ From duodenum to rectum


Productive indicators. The optimum productive performance is due to the adequate content of nutrients of easy assimilation that taro meal has for pig feeding (Aragadvay et al. 2016). This fact was confirmed by Caicedo et al. (2018), who conducted studies of apparent digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, crude fiber and crude energy in fattening pigs, and demonstrated that the substitution of 20 and 40% of corn for taro meal in the diet did not affect the use of nutrients in relation to the basal diet of corn and soybeans.

Starch from taro tubers is very small, 6.50 μm for white varieties and 6.60 μm for purple varieties (Torres et al. 2013), compared to other roots and tubers (Xanthosoma yucatanensis 12.40 μm, Ipomoea batata 12.41 μm, Manihot esculenta Crantz 16.5 μm and Marantha arundinacea 10.64 μm, Hernández-Medina et al. 2008), which facilitates the utilization of starch (Lapis et al. 2017). Likewise, taro meal has a low fiber content and does not affect digestibility of energy and protein in diets (Bertechini 2013).

In other researches, Naskar et al. (2008) with meal from boiled sweet potato tubers achieved increases in the rate of growth and food conversion of pigs by replacing the commercial diet by 40% of this food. Koslowski et al. (2017), with cassava meal, observed a decrease of food intake, weight gain and food conversion by completely substituting corn in the diet of growing pigs, and recommended replacing up to 66% without compromising the DFI, DWG and FC. With cassava bran, Romero de Armas et al. (2017) partially replaced corn in the diet at 30% without negative effect on the productive indicators of fattening pigs.

In summary, Ly (2010) and Sánchez et al. (2018) stated that roots and tubers processed in the form of meal constitute a valuable energy source for swine feeding at a lower cost in relation to cereals.

Morphometric evaluations of the GIT and accessory organs. There was no affectation for the weight of the GIT, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, caecum and liver, nor for the elongation of the TGI, small intestine, large intestine and caecum of the animals under study. Several reports indicate that the processing of food in the form of meal allows well-balanced diets that do not negatively influence on the morphology and function of the organs of the TGI, nor affect the productive performance of pigs (Landgraf et al. 2006, Bach-Knudsen et al. 2012, Diba et al. 2014 and Lindberg 2014). In this study, this effect is attributed to the low fiber level of the diets used (Hurtado et al. 2011 and Aguilar 2017).

Finally, there is enough experimental evidence to ensure that the increase in weight and elongation of digestive organs of pig are influenced by the genotype (McKay et al. 1984) and with the increase in the fiber level in the diet (Borin 2005, Ly et al. 2011 and Agyekum and Nyachoti 2017).

Under the conditions of this study, the use of taro tuber meal as a partial substitution of corn in the diet is feasible, since it does not have a negative influence on the indicators of productive performance or on the morphometry of the gastrointestinal organs of fattening pigs.


Thanks to the technical staff and workers of the Programa de Porcinos de la Universidad Estatal Amazónica for the support in the execution of this research.


Aguilar, R. 2017. Inclusión de harina de follaje y raíz de yuca (Manihot esculenta Crantz) en cerdos en desarrollo y su efecto sobre el comportamiento productivo y morfometría del tracto gastrointestinal. M.Sc Thesis, Universidad Nacional Agraria, Managua, Nicaragua, 41 p. [ Links ]

AGROCALIDAD (Agencia Ecuatoriana de Aseguramiento de la Calidad del Agro). 2017. Manual de aplicabilidad de buenas prácticas porcícolas. Quito, Ecuador, 127 p. Available: <Available: >, [Consulted: January 05, 2018]. [ Links ]

Agyekum, A.K. & Nyachoti, C.M. 2017. Nutritional and Metabolic Consequences of Feeding High-Fiber Diets to Swine: A Review. Engineering, 3(5): 716-725. [ Links ]

Aragadvay, R., Núñez, O., Velástegui, G., Villacís, L. & Guerrero, J. 2016. Uso de harina de Colocasia esculeta L., en la alimentación de cerdos y su efecto sobre parámetros productivos. Journal Selva Andina Animal Science, 3(2): 98-104. [ Links ]

Ayala, L., Bocourt, R., Castro, M., Dihigo, L.E., Milián, G., Herrera, M. & Ly, J. 2014. Desarrollo de órganos digestivos en cerditos descendientes de madres que consumieron un probiótico, antes del parto y durante la lactancia. Cuban Journal of Agricultural Science. 48(2): 133-136. [ Links ]

Bach-Knudsen, K.E., Hedemann, M.S. & Laerke, H.N. 2012. The role of carbohydrates in intestinal health of pigs. Anim. Feed. Sci. Technol., 173(1-2):41-53. [ Links ]

Bertechini, AG. 2013. Nutrição de monogástricos. Segunda Edição Revisada, Editora UFLA, Lavras, MG, Brasil. 2012. 373 p., ISBN: 978-85-8127-016-6. [ Links ]

Borin, K. 2005. Cassava Foliage for Monogastric Animals: Forage Yield, Digestion, Influence on Gut Development and Nutritive Value. Ph. D Thesis. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Suecia, 55 p. [ Links ]

Caicedo, W., Rodríguez, R., Lezcano, P., Ly, J., Valle, S., Flores, L. & Ferreira, F.N.A. 2015. Chemical composition and in vitro digestibility of silages of taro (Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott) tubers for feeding pigs. Cuban Journal of Agricultural Science, 49(1): 59-64. [ Links ]

Caicedo, W., Sanchez, J., Tapuy, A., Vargas, J.C., Samaniego, E., Valle, S., Moyano, J. & Pujupat, D. 2018. Apparent digestibility of nutrients in fattening pigs (Largewhite x Duroc x Pietrain), fed with taro (Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott) meal. Technical note. Cuban Journal of Agricultural Science, 52(2): 1-6. [ Links ]

Diba, D., Mekasha, Y., Urge, M., Tolera, A. & Eshetu, M. 2014. Carcass Yield and Quality of Pork from Pigs Fed Graded Levels of Fig (Ficus sur) Fruits Mixed with Maize Grain. Sci. Technol. Arts Res. J. 3(4): 71-78. [ Links ]

Di Rienzo, J.A., Casanoves, F., Balzarini, M. G., González, L., Tablada, M. & Robledo, C.W. 2012. InfoStat. version 2012, [Windows], Córdoba, Argentina: Grupo InfoStat, Available: <>. [ Links ]

FAO. 2018. Cerdos y la nutrición humana. Available: <Available: >, [Consulted: July 30, 2018]. [ Links ]

Fisher, R.A. 1954. Statistical Methods for Research Workers. Oliver and Boyd., ISBN 0-05-002170-2. [ Links ]

GADPP (Gobierno Autónomo Descentralizado Provincial de Pastaza). 2014. Plan productivo provincial de Pastaza. Available: <Available: >, [Consulted: February 18, 2019]. [ Links ]

Grecco, H., Amorim, A., Saleh, M., Tse, M., Telles, F., Miassi, G., Pimenta, G. & Berto, D. 2018. Evaluation of growth performance and gastro-intestinal parameters on the response of weaned piglets to dietary organic acids. Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências, 90(1): 401-414 [ Links ]

Hernández-Medina, M., Torruco-Uco, J., Chel-Guerrero, L. & Betancur-Ancona, D. 2008. Caracterización fisicoquímica de almidones de tubérculos cultivados en Yucatán, México. Ciênc. Tecnol. Aliment., Campinas, 28(3): 718-726 [ Links ]

Hou, Y.Q., Wang, L., Ding, B.Y., Liu, Y.L., Zhu, H.L., Liu, J., Li, Y.T., Wu, X., Yin, Y.L. & Wu, G.Y. 2010. Dietary a-ketoglutarate supplementation ameliorates intestinal injury in lipopolysaccharide-challenged piglets. Amino Acids. 39(2): 555-564 [ Links ]

Hurtado, V., Nobre, R. & Chiquieri, J. 2011. Rendimiento de cerdos alimentados con raciones conteniendo subproductos de arroz, durante la fase de crecimiento. Rev. MVZ Córdoba. 16(1): 2372-23 [ Links ]

Koslowski, H.A., Picot, J.A., Sánchez, S., Calderón, S. & Barrientos, F. 2017. Incorporación de raíz de mandioca (Manihot esculenta) en la dieta de cerdos y su efecto sobre variables productivas. Revista Veterinaria. 28(2): 121-125. [ Links ]

Landgraf, S., Susenbeth, A., Knap, P.W., Looft, H., Plastow, G.S., Kalm, E. & Roehe, R. 2006. Developments of carcass cuts, organs, body tissues and chemical body composition during growth of pigs. Animal Science. 82(6): 889-899. [ Links ]

Lapis, T.J., Penner, M.H., Balto, A.S. & Lim, J. 2017. Oral Digestion and Perception of Starch: Effects of Cooking, Tasting Time, and Salivary α-Amylase Activity. Chem Senses. 42(8): 635-645. [ Links ]

Lezcano, P., Berto, D., Bicudo, S., Curcelli, F., Figueiredo, P. & Valdivie, M. 2014. Yuca ensilada como fuente de energía para cerdos en crecimiento. Avances en Investigación Agropecuaria. 18(3): 41-47. [ Links ]

Lindberg, J.A. 2014. Fiber effects in nutrition and gut health in pigs. Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology. 5(15): 1-7. [ Links ]

Ly, J. 2010. Sweet potatoes (Impomoea batata Lam) for pig feeding. Feed intake and digestibility of sweet potatoes in pigs. Revista Computarizada de Producción Porcina. 17(1): 15-25 [ Links ]

Ly, J., Almaguel, R., Lezcano, P. & Delgado, E. 2014. Miel rica o maíz como fuente de energía para cerdos en crecimiento. Interdependencia entre rasgos de comportamiento, digestibilidad rectal y órganos digestivos. Revista Computadorizada de Producción Porcina. 21(2): 66-69. [ Links ]

Ly, J., Ayala, L., Hidalgo, K., Rodríguez, B., Romero, A.M. & Delgado, E. 2013. Digestibilidad rectal y macroarquitectura gastrointestinal de cerdos jóvenes alimentados con dietas de levadura torula y miel rica. Influencia del peso corporal. Revista Computadorizada de Producción Porcina. 20(3): 143-146. [ Links ]

Ly, J., Díaz, C., Macías, M., Santana, I., Martínez, O. & Domínguez, H. 2011. Evidencias de interdependencia entre índices morfométricos de órganos digestivos y digesta en cerdos. Revista Computadorizada de Producción Porcina. 18(1): 63-67. [ Links ]

McKay, R.M., Rempel, W.E., Cornelius, S.G. & Allen, C.E. 1984. Visceral characteristics of three breeds of swine and their crosses. Canadian Journal of Animal Science. 64(1):9-19. [ Links ]

Mejía, W. 2017. Fermentación en estado sólido de Saccharum officinarum con follaje de Moringa oleifera para alimentación porcina. M.Sc. Thesis. Universidad Nacional Agraria, Managua, Nicaragua. 33 p. [ Links ]

Naskar, S. H., Gupta, J. J., Nedunchezhiyan, M. & Bardell, R. K. 2008. Evaluation of sweet potatoes in pig ration. Journal of Crops. 34(1): 50-53 [ Links ]

NRC (National Research Council). 2012. Nutrient Requirements of Swine. 11th ed., Washington D.C., USA: National Academies Press, 400 p., ISBN: 978-0-309-22423-9. [ Links ]

Paredes, M., Vallejo, L. & Mantilla, J. 2017. Efecto del Tipo de Alimentación sobre el Comportamiento Productivo, Características de la Canal y Calidad de Carne del Cerdo Criollo Negro Cajamarquino. Revista de Investigaciones Veterinarias del Perú. 28(4): 894-903. [ Links ]

Romero de Armas, R., Alcívar, E. & Alpizar, J. 2017. Afrecho de yuca como sustituto parcial del maíz en la alimentación de cerdos de engorde. Revista la Técnica (Edición Especial). 54-61. [ Links ]

Rostagno, H.S., Teixeira, L.F., Donzele, L.J., Gomes, P.C., Oliverira, Rita., Lopes, D.C., Ferreira, A.S., Toledo, S.L. & Euclides, R.F. 2011. Tablas Brasileñas para aves y cerdos. Composición de Alimentos y Requerimientos Nutricionales. 3era Edición. Universidad Federal de Viçosa - Departamento de Zootecnia, Brasil, 167 pp. [ Links ]

Sakomura, N. & Rostagno, H. 2007. Métodos de pesquisa em nutrição de monogástricos. Jaboticabal: Funep, 283 p., ISBN: 978-85-87632-97-5. [ Links ]

Sánchez, J., Caicedo, W, Aragón, E., Andino, M., Bosques, F., Viamonte, M. & Ramírez, J. 2018. La inclusión de la Colocasia esculenta (papa china) en la alimentación de cerdos en ceba. Revista Electrónica de Veterinaria. 19(4): 1-5. [ Links ]

Savón, L., Mora, L., Dihigo, L., Rodríguez, V., Rodríguez, Y., Scull, I., Hernández, Y. & Ruiz, T. 2008. Efecto de la harina de follaje de Tithonia diversifolia en la morfometría del tracto gastrointestinal de cerdos en crecimiento-ceba. Zootecnia Tropical. 26(3): 387-390. [ Links ]

Steel, R.G.D., Torrie, J.H. & Dickey, M. 1997. Principles and Procedures of Statistics. A Biometrical Approach. MacGraw-Hill Book Company In Company. Third Ed. New York, USA. 666 p., ISBN: 978-0-07-061028-6. [ Links ]

Torres, A., Montero, P. & Duran, M. 2013. Propiedades fisicoquímicas, morfológicas y funcionales del almidón de malanga (Colocasia esculenta). Revista Lasallista de Investigación. 10(2): 52-61. [ Links ]

Uvidia, H., Buestán, D., Leonard, I. & Benítez, D. 2014. La distancia de siembra y el número de estacas en el establecimiento del Pennisetum purpureum. Revista Electrónica de Veterinaria. 15(7): 1-8. [ Links ]

Received: September 05, 2018; Accepted: July 02, 2019

Creative Commons License This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License