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Cuban Journal of Agricultural Science

Print version ISSN 0864-0408On-line version ISSN 2079-3480

Cuban J. Agric. Sci. vol.54 no.2 Mayabeque Apr.-June 2020  Epub June 01, 2020



Effect of the use of Cajanus cajan (pigeon pea) meal on productive indicators of quails

Blanca M. Toro Molina1

Mercedes M. Cepeda Cabrera1

E. Chacón Marcheco1  *

J. E. Sambache Tayupanta1

Maira N. Martínez Freire1

H. P. Bastidas Pacheco1

G. G. Brito Zúñiga2

Cristina G. Calderón Tapia2

Lucía M. Silva Déley1

1Facultad de Ciencias Agropecuarias y Recursos Naturales (CAREN), Universidad Técnica de Cotopaxi. CP 050150, Latacunga, Ecuador.

2Escuela Superior Politécnica de Chimborazo (ESPOCH). CP 060150, Chimborazo, Ecuador.


To evaluate the effect of the use of Cajanus cajan (pigeon pea) meal on production indicators of quail, an amount of 160 quails was used, with 43 days old and an average weight of 149 ± 0.25 g, distributed in a completely randomized design with four treatments, four repetitions (40) and 10 animals per repetitions. Dry matter, crude protein, ashes, crude fiber and ether extract were determined, as well as metabolizable energy. Indicators initial and final weight, daily mean weight gain, food conversion, laying index, viability, shell thickness, white and yolk height, and shape index were evaluated. The best results were obtained in control treatment, and when including 10% of meal with 18.19%, 0.34 g and 0.21 g for laying index, egg weight and mean daily weight gain, respectively. Laying index showed the highest values for control, 10% of pigeon pea meal has a chemical and amino acid composition suitable for its use in animal feed. Up to 10% of seed meal can be included in quail feed, without affecting the main productive and quality indicators of the egg.

Key words: meal; Cajanus cajan; quail; production; egg quality

Quail feeding for productive purposes depends on concentrated feed. Generally, this is not easy to obtain due to limitation of raw material for industries, which is why it is often replaced by feed intended for laying hens.

In quail feeding, for example, diets that do not meet the nutritional properties this animal demands are used. As a consequence, they show serious digestive and reproductive disorders, which retard development, decrease laying, and may cause illnesses and even death. It is reported that a low protein content and imbalances in essential amino acids in quail diets lead to decreased laying and even its suppression (Pino et al. 2018).

Other balanced nutritional compounds, such as carbohydrates, fats, vitamins, minerals and essential amino acids, are vital in the feeding of these fowls, according to their physiological stages (Ribeiro et al. 2015).

In Ecuador, mainly in Cotopaxi province, there is no specific information about production levels of quail eggs and meat, because farmers empirically carry this activity out. One of the limitations of production systems at these levels is the poor knowledge of zootechnical management, availability and high cost of balanced feed, which makes it difficult to meet the objectives and goals set for each production. The search for local sources can help to substitute conventional raw materials, which could be important for the region (de Oliveira et al. 2015, Rosario and Nieves 2015 and Pereira et al. 2016).

Pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan cv. Negro) is a shrub legume, characterized by its high nutritional value, agronomic versatility, and multiple uses. In addition, it contributes to food sustainability in tropical and subtropical regions. Due to its nutritional and medicinal benefits, it is considered as a functional food for humans (Carvajal et al. 2016).

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the inclusion of different levels of pigeon pea meal in quail production indicators.

Materials and Methods

Location and experimental ecology. The research was carried out in Los Álamos, La Maná, Cotopaxi province, Ecuador. It is located at 00° 564´5.25” South and 79° 14´14.63” West, at 370 m over sea level.

Climate of this territory is classified as humid subtropical, with average rainfall of 3,179.6 mm/year. Average temperature is 24 °C (19.95 minimum and 28.05 °C maximum), with relative humidity of 92%, heliography of 1.67 light hours/day, annual cloudiness 05-Ago and 382.43 mm/year of evaporation.

Animals and diets. An amount of 160 quails, 43 days old and average weight of 149 ± 0.25 g, was used. They were distributed in a completely randomized design, with four treatments and four repetitions. Each repetition had 40 animals, 10 quails each. Table 1 shows the chemical composition of treatments and the contribution of diets.

Table 1 Composition of diet, laying stage 

Ingredients Pigeon pea meal, %
0 10 20 30
Corn 45.35 38.35 31.35 24.35
Rice powder 10 10 10 10
Pigeon pea meal 0 10 20 30
Export fish meal 7 7 7 7
Soy bean paste 29 26 23 20
Palm oil 1 1 1 1
Calcium carbonate 6 6 6 6
Biofos 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5
Salt 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3
Premix for laying hens 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25
Methionine 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15
Coccidiostats 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05
Zinc Bacitracin 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05
Toxin capture 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2
Antimycotic 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1
Antioxidant 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05
Total 100 100 100 100
Calculated contribution
Protein, % 20 19.87 19.9 20.2
Energy, kcal ME/kg 2902 2896 2900 2903
Phosphorous, % 0.36 0.36 0.35 0.37
Calcium, % 2.51 2.48 2.50 2.52
Lysine, % 1.01 0.99 1.00 1.01
Methionine+ Cystine , % 0.81 0.82 0.79 0.80
Methionine, % 0.44 0.45 0.46 0.47

1Product guarantee per kg: vit. A, 20,000,000 IU; vit D3, 6,000,000, IU; vit. E, 16,000, IU; vit. K (menadione), 6,000 mg; vit. B1 (thiamine), 1,000. mg; vit. B2 (riboflavin) 9,000, mg; vit. B6 (pyridoxine), 1000, mg; vit. B12 (cyanocobalamin), 24, mg; pantothenic acid, 12,000 mg; niacin, 12,000mg; vit. H (biotin), 40 mg; folic acid, 400 mg; antioxidant, 50,000 mg.

Chemical analysis. Dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), ash, crude fiber (CF), ether extract (EE) were determined to food according to AOAC (2016). These determinations were made by triplicate. Metabolizable energy (ME) was calculated according to the recommendations of Rostagno et al. (2011). The meal was placed in a shaker with water (pH 8.5) and liquefied for 3 min. Subsequently, it was filtered through gauze. The liquid portion, which contains proteins, lipids, pigments and soluble sugars, was centrifuged and the supernatant was decanted. This liquid was acidified to isoelectric point with 0.1N HCl up to pH 4 and heated at 82 °C for 5 min. A precipitate and a solution (serum) were thus obtained. The precipitate was centrifuged and the liquid was discarded. The concentrate was washed with 95% ethanol, and dried in an oven at 60 ° C for 5 min. Total nitrogen was determined to this concentrate (AOAC 2016). Total amino acids were quantified by acid hydrolysis with HCl 6 N. Amino acids were separated in a Beckman 6300 High Performance Analyzer.

Obtaining the meal. Pigeon pea seeds, Negro variety, were collected in May, in Ventanas Canton, Los Ríos province. Grains were roasted to guarantee the removal of antinutritional substances, and then they were ground in a hammer mill with a 250 µm sieve to produce this meal. Once obtained, it was stored in polyethylene bags at room temperature. Subsequently, a sample of meal (300 g) was taken for bromatological analysis.

Bioassay. An amount of 160 quails, 43 days old, were used. For their selection, it was considered that these animals presented adequate conditions to carry out the research.

Diets were isoenergetic and isoproteic. Basic ration was constituted with rice powder, fishmeal, soybean paste, pigeon pea meal (0, 10, 20 and 30%), corn, salt, vitamins and minerals, according to nutritional requirements (NRC 1994) for laying phase (table 1).

Animals were vaccinated against Newcastle and their feeding was controlled, according to their physiological stage. They were individually weighed on a digital scale (± 0.01 g; PE 3600 Mettler-Toledo).

Weight gain g = Wx  WiMean daily gain GMD g = Wx  Wi / tFood conversion = total consumed food g, dry weight / total weight gain g, wet weightLaying index % = number of collected eggs / number of animals x 100Viability % = final number of quails/ initial number of quails × 100,



- is final body weight (g)


- is initial body weight (g)


- is duration of the experiment (d)

Shell thickness was measured with a 0-15mm Baxlo micrometer screw (Spain). To determine albumin and yolk height, these egg fractions were placed on a flat surface and an Ohaus 1350-50 vernier, with 0-160mm (USA) was used (Silversides and Budgell 2004). Shell coefficient was assessed by dividing shell weight by egg weight, multiplied by 100.

Haugh units (HU) of eggs were estimated according to the formula indicated by Haugh (1937). They were classified by a scale. That is: poor, from 55 to 59 HU; consumer resistance point, from 60 to 64 HU; regular, from 65 to 69 HU; acceptable, from 70 to 79 HU; very good, from 80 to 89 HU, and excellent, more than 90 HU. Calculation was performed according to the following formula:




- White height, mm


- egg weight, g

Statistical analysis and calculations. For chemical composition of meal, mean and standard deviation were determined. A simple classification analysis of variance was applied to results, in which diet was considered as the only variation factor. Difference among means was determined using Duncan (1955) test. SPSS statistical program, version 21 (2012) was used.

Results and Discussion

Pigeon pea meal showed an adequate chemical composition to be used in animal feeding with high CP, ME, low fiber and an adequate amino acid balance (table 2). These values were higher than those reported by Torres et al. (2017), who reported protein and ash percentages of 15.52 and 5.43, respectively. These figures show that pigeon pea meal, due to its chemical composition, can be used as animal feed.

Table 2 Chemical composition of pigeon pea meal 

Indicators Media SD±
DM, % 89.03 0.04
CP, % 21.19 0.06
CF, % 2.25 0.01
Ash, % 9.15 0.03
EE, % 3.36 0.56
NFE,% 63.44 0.96
ME, kcal 2980 0.06
Lysine, % 7.79 0.04
Histidine, % 3.66 0.01
Arginine, % 5.86 0.105
Valine, % 5.85 0.03
Methionine, % 1.19 0.02
Isoleucine,% 3.47 0.01
Leucine, % 6.78 0.07

Pigeon pea has different amino acids (arginine, aspartic acid, threonine, serine, glutamic acid, glycine, alanine, leucine, and tyrosine) that are generally stable to heat. Other amino acid concentration (lysine, histidine, proline, cysteine, valine, methionine, isoleucine and phenylalanine) decrease with heat treatments. Proteins of this plant are a rich source of essential amino acids, such as lysine, valine, threonine, and phenylalanine, but generally are deficient in the content of sulfur amino acids, such as cysteine and methionine (Navarro et al. 2014).

Roasting the seed of this legume is used as a treatment to remove secondary metabolites. Taking into account that this process allows improving its use in animal feed, seeds were roasted in this study.

Miquelena and Higuera (2012), when evaluating pigeon pea meal (Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.) Var. TAC.401; mungbean (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek) var. Mara I and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.), reported protein levels between 17 and 24% and amino acid percentages (lysine, valine, methionine and leucine of 7-8, 4-6, 1.47-1.89 and 5-7, respectively). These references denote that levels of meal used in this research are in the range reported for legume grains used in animal production.

Laying index indicator showed the best values for control and 10% inclusion of seed meal, with 53.47 and 52.87, respectively. With egg weight, mean daily gain and food conversion something similar occurred (table 3). For the remaining indicators, no significant differences were shown among treatments.

Table 3 Effect of pigeon pea meal on productive performance of laying quails  

Indicators Pigeon pea meal, % SE± P
0 10 20 30
Viability, % 100 100 100 100 ----- -----
Laying index, % 53.47a 52.87a 34.68c 49.10b 4.96 0.0001
Food intake, g /quail/d 135.09 135.85 133.08 134.79 2.054 0.290
Food conversion, g/g 3.97c 3.84c 6.49a 4.76b 0.299 0.0001
Egg weight, g 10.45a 10.40a 10.06c 10.34b 0.281 0.001
Initial liveweight, g 160.7 160.85 161.40 161.16 1.174 0.637
Final liveweight, g 229.00 228.50 229.00 229.45 0.818 0.479
DWG, g 11.01a 10.89ab 10.68b 10.83b 0.0609 0.0278

a,b,c Means with different letters in the same line differ at P < 0.05 (Duncan 1955)

According to Herrera et al. (2016), this performance is due to the fact that alkaloids, plant lectins and glucosinolates reduce palatability and voluntary intake of monogastric animals, including fowls. It is important to highlight that thermolabile antinutritional factors (protease inhibitors and phytohemagglutins) of seeds are denatured with roasting. There are contradictions regarding processing temperature and time of legume seeds to eliminate secondary metabolites, without affecting food quality. Quicazán and Caicedo (2012) determined that it is possible to degrade trypsin inhibitor in soaked and scalded soybeans for producing beverages, with heat treatment at 80ºC.

Herrera et al. (2016) obtained lower final liveweight per quail (2129.38 g) and accumulated liveweight gain per animal (1967.50 g), with 20% inclusion of pigeon pea meal. Al Hafiz et al. (2013) used grain decortication for its inclusion in broiler diets. These authors obtained lower values in productive performance of animals and achieved the highest weight gain in rearing with 12% inclusion of pigeon pea meal. The main differences in the results could be given by the way in which grain is used and its treatment to reduce antinutritional factors and improve the use of nutrients.

Other studies stated that the inclusion of pigeon pea in the diet of fowls reduces production costs in fattening, which reaffirms the importance of this research (Herrera et al. 2014, Polyana et al. 2014 and Herrera et al. 2015).

Other plant species have been used in feeding fowls. For example, with the use of Azolla meal, higher intake in g/fowls/d and higher laying index have been achieved, as well as a higher food conversion in control treatment and in experimental diets with lower percentage of plant inclusion (Buenaño-Buenaño et al. 2018), similar to results of this research.

Quality indicators (table 4), as well as productive ones, presented the best results for control treatment and for 10% of pigeon pea meal, with significant differences regarding the rest, with values ​​above 88%, 0.20, 3.90 and 10 mm for shape index, shell thickness, white and yolk height, respectively. This is because all diets of this study covered the nutritional requirements. In addition, it was confirmed that it was possible to enhance nutritional value of meal with heat treatment, results that coincide with those reported by Herrera et al. (2016).

Table 4 Effect of pigeon pea meal on external and internal quality of laying quails 

Indicators Pigeon pea meal, % SE± P
0 10 20 30
Shape index, % 88.35a 88.18a 86.41c 87.87b 0.816 0.0001
Shell thickness, mm 0.23a 0.23a 0.22b 0.22b 0.0078 0.035
White height, mm 3.94a 3.91b 3.56d 3.85c 0.160 0.0001
Yolk height, mm 10.24a 10.13a 8.34c 9.64b 0.781 0.0001

a,b,c Means with different letters in the same line differ at P < 0.05 (Duncan 1955)

Amaefule et al. (2011) demonstrated that diets with pigeon pea for broilers, supplement with lysine and methionine, as happened in this experiment, allowed to obtain good productive results with the inclusion of meal up to 40%. Akande et al. (2010) demonstrated that roasting of pigeon pea seeds did not produce significant nutrient variations, particularly in crude protein, although it increased the presence of amino acids like arginine, aspartic acid, threonine, serine, glutamic acid, glycine, alanine, leucine and tyrosine. This justifies the importance of performing a correct roasting to increase amino acid availability, for improving productive performance.

Other research reported similar values to those of this study, regarding the different evaluated indicators. They pointed out that pigeon pea meal can present anti-nutritional factors that can be eliminated with heat treatments (Solis et al. 2017), very similar to those practiced in this study. The high biological value of pigeon pea meal protein has also been mentioned, since it has essential amino acids (Albert and Rodríguez 2014).


Pigeon pea meal has a chemical and amino acid composition suitable for its use in animal feeding. Up to 10% seed meal can be included in quail feed, without affecting the main production and quality indicators of egg.


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Received: June 24, 2019; Accepted: February 03, 2020

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